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研究生:吳坤霖
研究生(外文):Kun-lin Wu
論文名稱:圈養台灣獼猴(Macacacyclopis)衝突後行為研究
論文名稱(外文):Postconflict Behavior of Captive Formosan Macaques ( Macaca cyclopis )
指導教授:徐芝敏徐芝敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Minna J Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:自向行為第三者友好接觸傾度社會的性行為台灣獼猴和好傾度
外文關鍵詞:triadic contact tendencyMacaca cyclopisconciliatory tendencysociosexual behaviorself-directed behavior
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本研究探討圈養之台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)在衝突後和好、安慰與乞求性友好接觸、緊張行為與轉向攻擊行為。本研究採用post-conflict and matched-control方法(PC-MC)取得台北市立動物園成年獼猴個體的和好傾度與第三者友好接觸傾度。台灣獼猴親屬間發生敵對者之和好傾度(83.33%)顯著較非親屬間(0.36%)高,且被攻擊者主動向較高位階攻擊者和好之比例顯著高於敵對雙方位階相同(P < 0.05)。攻擊者與被攻擊者與不同類別的第三者(對手之親屬、親屬、和敵對雙方皆無親屬關係之第三者)之第三者友好接觸傾度皆無顯著差異(P > 0.05)。被攻擊之台灣獼猴對攻擊者發生社會的性行為(sociosexual behavior)類別之吸引配對比例(15.23%)顯著多於分散配對(未發生),且和敵對雙方皆無親屬關係之第三者發生親密(affiliation behavior)及社會的性行為類別之吸引配對比例(46.72%;28.86%)亦分別顯著多於分散配對(21.76%;1.75%)。但敵對後由何方主動進行友好行為則沒有顯著差異(P > 0.05)。台灣獼猴敵對後自向行為(self-directed behavior)頻度於PC前4分鐘較高;和好後之自向行為頻度(14.6次/百分鐘)未顯著低於和好前(23.2次/百分鐘)及未與任何個體發生友好行為(22.3次/百分鐘)。敵對雙方為親屬者之自向行為頻度(16.1次/百分鐘)亦未顯著低於敵對雙方為非親屬者(24.1次/百分鐘)。台灣獼猴於PC期間轉向攻擊對象多為與敵對雙方無親屬關係之個體(82.61%)。被攻擊者之和好傾度(16.50%)與安慰之第三者友好接觸傾度(18.99%)無顯著差異(P > 0.05),此顯示和好與安慰在敵對後之功能同樣重要。被攻擊者使用社會的性行為和好僅在PC期間發生,且佔和好行為之34.85%,此顯示其目的為避免受到再次攻擊。敵對後被攻擊者無和好安慰但有乞求性友好接觸的比例為23.32%,其功能可能為換取第三者於下次發生敵對時之協助。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the post-conflict reconciliation, consolation, solicited affiliation, stress and redirection in the captive Formosan macaques(Macaca cyclopis)in the Taipei Zoo. I used the post-conflict and matched-control (PC-MC) method to calculate the conciliatory tendency (CCT) and the triadic contact tendency (TCT) in adult macaques. The mean CCT for kin (83.33%) was significantly higher than that for non-kin (0.36%), and victims initiated reconciliation toward aggressors in higher rank classes significant more than both of them were in the same rank. The mean TCTs of aggressors and the victims were similar toward different triadic contact opponents (opponent’s kin, own kin, unrelated individual). The ratio of the attracted pairs of victims who reconciled with aggressors by sociosexual behavior (15.23%) was significant higher than dispersed pairs (non-exist). In addition, the ratio of attracted pairs of victims who reconciled with unrelated third party by affiliation (46.72%) was significant higher than the dispersed pairs (21.76%). The similar situation also occurred in sociosexual behavior (28.68% verse 1.75%). However, aggressors and victims had similar chance to take the initiative affiliation after conflict (P > 0.05) The frequency of self-directed behavior (SDB) of Formosan macaques was slightly higher in the first 4 minutes in PC. The frequency of SDB after reconciliation (14.6 bouts/100 min) was not significantly lower than that before reconciliation (23.2 bouts/100 min) or when affiliation behavior did not occur (22.3 bouts/100 min). When the conflict opponents were kin, the SDB frequency (16.1 bouts/100 min) was not significantly lower than non-kin (24.1 bouts/100 min). The targets of redirect aggression were mostly unrelated individuals (82.61%). The mean CCT of the victims (16.50%) did not significant differ from the mean consolation TCT of the victims (48.81%), which indicated that reconciliation and consolation played similar critical roles after conflict. The sociosexual behavior performed by victims only occurred in PC (34.85%), which indicated the purpose of sociosexual behavior in reconciliation was to prevent further attack from aggressors. The chance of victims did not involve reconciliation and consolation, but solicited affiliation with a third party in PC was 23.32%. This indicated that the solicited affiliation might function to exchange the aggressive supports from the third party in the following conflicts.
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 v
前言 1
材料與方法 5
一、研究地點與對象 5
二、觀察方法 5
三、行為紀錄與計算 7
四、資料分析 10
五、統計分析 15
結果 17
和好傾度(Conciliatory tendency, CCT) 20
第三者友好接觸傾度(Triadic contact tendency, TCT) 23
和好傾度(CCT)與第三者友好接觸傾度(TCT)之比較 26
自向行為(Self-directed behavior, SDB) 32
轉向攻擊行為(Redirection) 37
討論 39
參考文獻 47
表 52
圖 57
附錄 85
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