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研究生:鍾佳紋
研究生(外文):Chia-wen Chung
論文名稱:壽山地區臺灣獼猴雌猴位序關係之變異與穩定性
論文名稱(外文):Variability and stability in the rank relations of female Formosanmacaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan
指導教授:徐芝敏徐芝敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Minna J. Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:臺灣獼猴雌猴位序分群重用親屬模式母系階級
外文關鍵詞:Macaca cyclopismaternal hierarchynepotistic hierarchyfemale rankingtroop fission
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本研究探討臺灣獼猴成年雌猴位序之獲得與維持、分群變化及其與重用親
屬模式的相似程度。野外觀察自2006 年10 月到2008 年4 月,採用掃描取樣、
成年雌猴友好行為及敵對行為之隨機取樣與敵對後焦點取樣。生育及位序資料分
析為1998 年到2008 年的紀錄。
雌猴滿4 歲加入位序排列,其中88 %的4 歲雌猴(n = 43)屬中低位序。
成雌個體特性、年齡和母親相對位序對5 歲(含)以上成雌相對位序有顯著影響
(P < 0.05),且位序曾相鄰的母女對占所有母女對(n = 58)的47 %。當雌猴
5 到11 歲時,其相對位序隨母親相對位序增加而增加(正相關線性關係,
P < 0.05)。留在C 群的雌猴位序受母系階級影響,優勢母系的雌猴穩定在高位
序,而低階母系的雌猴位序多在中低位序。遷入4 旁支群的22 隻成雌中,86.4 %
分群前是中低位序,且成雌在旁支群的位序受母系成員和分群前位序關係影響。
母親位序高於成年女兒位序占所有母親的59.4 %(19 / 32)。當9 歲(含)
以上雌猴之母親還在社群時,成雌位序受同母系其他成雌平均相對位序和母親相
對位序的影響(P < 0.05),而當雌猴失去母親,影響其位序則受個體差異、本身
年齡、同母系其他成雌平均相對位序和成年女兒數影響(P < 0.05)。雌猴9 到
15 歲時的位序維持比例在有成年女兒組為0.82(± 0.12),顯著高於無成年女兒
組(P < 0.05)。妹妹位序超越姊姊位序占所有姊妹對的50 %(9 / 18),且妹妹相
對位序隨姊姊位序增加而增加(正相關線性關係,P < 0.05)。姊妹與母親的親近
指數顯著高於姊姊與母親的親近指數(P < 0.05),但其與姊妹位序是否超越對方
無關。有幫助者(n = 13)協助攻擊者之比例僅占成雌攻擊紀錄的4 %,且親屬
與非親屬幫助者分別為46.1 %和53.9 %。雌猴受母系階級影響排序且成雌半數
超越姊姊位序,但成雌位序可能被女兒超越,因此本研究中臺灣獼猴的雌猴位序
系統為弱的重用親屬模式。
Adult female Formosan macaques were observed to collect data on the
acquisition and stabilization of ranking, troop fission and to compare the female
ranking system and nepotistic hierarchy. Behavioral observations were recorded
from 1 October 2006 to 30 April 2008. Behavioral sampling methods included scan
sampling of macaque troop members, all occurrences sampling of adult females’
affiliative behaviors, and focal animal sampling of aggressive behaviors. In addition,
demographic and ranking records were collected from 1998 until 2008.
When females attained four years of age, they gained adult female hierarchy,
and 88 % (n = 43) of them were middle or low ranking. Individual traits, ageing and
mother’s relative rank have significant effects on the ranking of adult females who
were 5 to 11 years of age (P < 0.05), and the ranking of 47 % (n = 58) mothers were
close to their daughters. When females were 5 to 11 years of age, their relative ranks
had positive linear relationships to their mother’s relative rank (P < 0.05). Maternal
hierarchy affected the ranking of reminders in troop C, and the dominance
matrilineal females stabilized high ranking. But, most subordinate matrilineal
females were middle or low ranking. The ranking of 86.4 % (n = 22) of females who
immigrated to branch troops was middle or low. Matrilineal members and the
ranking before troop fission had effects on the female ranking after troop fission.
The ranking of 59.4 % (n = 32) of mothers was higher than that of their daughter.
When females reached 9 years old or older while their mothers were alive, mean
relative rank of other matrilineal female and mother’s relative rank had significant
effects on their ranking (P < 0.05). However, individual traits, mean relative rank of
other matrilineal female, ageing, and the number of adult daughters have significant
iv
effects on female ranking (P < 0.05). When females were 9 to 15 years of age, the
rank maintaining ratio of female with mature daughter was 0.82 (± 0.12), which is
significant higher than the ratio of female without mature daughter (P < 0.05). About
50 % (n = 18) of younger sisters outranked their older sisters. The ranking
relationships of sister dyads had positive linear relationships (P < 0.05). The
proximity index of mother and younger sister was significantly higher than the
proximity index of mother and older sister (P < 0.05), but that is independent of
whether females outrank their sister or not. Only 4 % (n = 423) female aggression
data were recorded that 13 supporters helped attackers to attack victims. The kin and
non-kin supporter were 46.1 % and 53.9 % respectively (n = 13). Maternal hierarchy
affected the adult female ranking and half of the females outranked their older sisters.
However, daughters could also outrank mothers. Therefore, female ranking system of
Formosan macaques follows a weakly nepotistic hierarchy.
Sterck EHM, Watts DP, vanSchaik CP (1997) The evolution of female social
relationships in nonhuman primates. Behav Ecol Sociobio 41:291-309
Su HH (2003) Acquirement of social ranks of females in one group of Taiwanese
macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Fushan Experimental Forest, Taiwan. Am J
Phys Anthropol:203-203
Su HH, Birky WA (2007) Within-group female-female agonistic interactions in
Taiwanese macaques (Macaca cyclopis). Am J Primatol 69:199-211
Su HH, Lee LL (2001) Food habits of Formosan rock macaques (Macaca cyclopis) in
Jentse, northeastern Taiwan, assessed by fecal analysis and behavioral
observation. Int J Primatol 22:359-377
Suzuki S, Hill DA, Sprague DS (1998) Intertroop transfer and dominance rank
structure of nonnatal male Japanese macaques in Yakushima, Japan. Int J
Primatol 19:703-722
Thierry B (1990) Feedback loop between kinship and dominance: the macaque model.
J Theor Biol 145:511-521
Wu HY, Lin JF (1992) Life history variables of wild troop of Formosan macaques
(Macaca cyclopis) in Kenting, Taiwan. Primates 33:85-97
誌謝...................................................................................................................... i
摘要..................................................................................................................... ii
Abstract............................................................................................................. iii
目錄..................................................................................................................... v
前言..................................................................................................................... 1
材料與方法......................................................................................................... 4
一、研究地點............................................................................................. 4
二、研究對象暨資料收集......................................................................... 4
三、行為定義............................................................................................. 7
四、資料分析............................................................................................. 7
結果................................................................................................................... 11
一、影響雌猴位序的因素....................................................................... 11
二、影響成雌維持位序的因素............................................................... 18
三、臺灣獼猴姊妹間位序關係............................................................... 20
討論................................................................................................................... 24
參考文獻........................................................................................................... 33
圖....................................................................................................................... 40
表....................................................................................................................... 47
附錄................................................................................................................... 57
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Taiwanese macaques (Macaca cyclopis). Am J Primatol 69:199-211
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observation. Int J Primatol 22:359-377
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