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研究生:蔡穎晟
研究生(外文):Ying-Chen Tsai
論文名稱:無機奈米金屬摻雜於有機高分子之太陽能電池特性研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Organic Solar Cell Doped with Metallic Nanoparticle
指導教授:張美濙
指導教授(外文):Mei-Ying Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:光電工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:有機高分子太陽能電池
外文關鍵詞:P3HTPd nanoparticlesPt nanoparticlesorganic solar cellPCBM
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本論文主要研究無機奈米金屬粒子與有機高分子混成材料之電荷傳輸特性。電荷在有機高分子材料之遷移速率極低,因以混摻無機奈米金屬粒子於有機高分子之方法,本論文所使用的無機奈米金屬是Pt NPs與Pd NPs,藉以增加電荷傳輸速率,進而改善有機太陽能電池的功率轉換效率。主動層材料以poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT)為電荷施體(Donor)材料及[6,6]-phenyl-C61-Butyric acid methyl ester
(PCBM)為電荷受體(Acceptor)材料,P3HT具高穩定度,及於可見光有高吸收度;PCBM具高穩定度且有良好的電子傳輸特性。
本論文主要將改質過之無機奈米金屬粒子:Pt NPs 與Pd NPs,摻雜於主動層材料中,其元件結構如下:ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:Pt NPs/Al與ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:Pd NPs/Al兩種,在AM 1.5G 100mW/cm2的模擬太陽光源下量測,Pt NPs結果:開路電壓維持在0.64V,而短路電流可由6.67mA/cm2提升至9mA/cm2,能量轉換效率由1.96%提升到3.08%。另一種無機奈米金屬Pd NPs結果:開路電壓維持在0.62V,短路電流可由6.33mA/cm2提升至7.33mA/cm2,功率轉換效率由1.7%提升到2.48%。
所以摻雜Pt NPs與Pd NPs確實都可以改善電荷傳輸,提高短路電流,最終提升元件功率轉換效率。
Polymers are with low carrier mobility. If polymer solar cells are to exhibit high power conversion efficiencies, their carrier mobilities must be improved. Metallic NPs are promising materials for use in polymer solar cells because of their high conductivities.
In this work, we studied the carrier transport characteristic of metallic nanoparticle blending into polymers. We blended Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) and Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) into polymers to improve carrier mobility, and enhance the power conversion efficiency of the polymer solar cell. P3HT was used as a donor material because of its high stability and with high absorption in visible light. PCBM was used as a acceptor material because of its high stability and with high electron transportation.
We blended modified Pt NPs and Pd NPs into the P3HT:PCBM active layer, with the device configurations of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:
Pt NPs/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:Pd NPs/Al, respectively polymer solar cells measured was under AM 1.5G 100mW/cm2 illumination. When we blended Pt NPs into the active layer, the open-circuit remained 0.64V, the short-circuit current increased from 6.67mA/cm2 to 9mA/cm2, the power conversion efficiency increased from 1.96% to 3.08%. When we blended Pd NPs into the active layer, the open-circuit remained 0.62V, the short-circuit current increased from 6.33mA/cm2 to 7.33mA/cm2, the power conversion efficiency increased from 1.7% to 2.48%.
The enhanced efficiency originated from the increased carrier mobility of the active layer when the Pt NPs or Pd NPs were present.
誌謝.....................................................................................................I
中文摘要.............................................................................................II
Abstract...............................................................................................III
目錄.....................................................................................................IV
圖目錄.................................................................................................VIII
表目錄.................................................................................................XI
第一章 緒論.......................................................................................1
1-1 替代性能源..........................................................................1
1-2 太陽能電池的定義..............................................................1
1-3 太陽能電池發展之三個世代..............................................2
1-4 有機與無機太陽能電池之介紹..........................................2
1-5 有機太陽能電池結構演進..................................................5
1-5-1 單層結構有機太陽能電池.......................................5
1-5-2 雙層異質界面結構有機太陽能電池.......................6
1-5-3 混合層異質界面結構有機太陽能電池...................7
1-5-4 接合層異質界面結構有機太陽能電池...................8
1-6 研究動機..............................................................................9
第二章 理論基礎...............................................................................10
2-1 能量及電荷轉移機制..........................................................10
2-2 光電轉換原理......................................................................11
2-3 太陽能電池等效電路..........................................................17
2-4 光電特性參數......................................................................19
2-4-1 短路電流(Isc)......................................................20
2-4-2 開路電壓(Voc)....................................................21
2-4-3 填充因子(F.F.).....................................................21
2-4-4 功率轉換效率(ηP)..............................................22
2-5 太陽光模擬..........................................................................23
第三章 實驗流程、製程設備與量測儀器.......................................28
3-1 實驗架構..............................................................................28
3-2 實驗材料..............................................................................29
3-2-1 陽極:ITO................................................................29
3-2-2 電洞傳輸層材料:PEDOT:PSS...........................30
3-2-3 主動層電荷施體材料:P3HT.................................31
3-2-4 主動層電荷受體材料:PCBM...............................31
3-2-5 無機奈米金屬材料:Pt NPs...................................32
3-2-6 無機奈米金屬材料:Pd NPs..................................34
3-2-7 溶劑:Chloroform...................................................34
3-2-8 陰極:Alumina........................................................34
3-3 藥品的配製..........................................................................35
3-3-1 PEDOT:PSS 材料..................................................35
3-3-2 P3HT:PCBM:Pt NPs 材料..................................35
3-3-3 P3HT:PCBM:Pd NPs 材料.................................35
3-4 實驗步驟..............................................................................35
3-4-1 ITO陽極圖形化........................................................36
3-4-2 ITO玻璃基版清洗....................................................38
3-4-3 有機高分子太陽能電池元件製程...........................39
3-5 製程設備..............................................................................41
3-5-1超音波清洗機(Ultrasonic cleaning)....................41
3-5-2 加熱盤(Hot plate)................................................41
3-5-3 電漿清洗機(O2 plasma)......................................41
3-5-4 旋轉塗佈機(Spin coater)....................................42
3-5-5 手套箱(Glove box)..............................................42
3-5-6 蒸鍍機(Evaporator).............................................43
3-5-7 紫外光曝光機(UV exposure).............................43
3-6 量測儀器..............................................................................44
3-6-1 紫外光/可見光光譜儀(UV-Vis).........................44
3-6-2 光電子光譜分析儀(AC-2)..................................45
3-6-3 表面輪廓儀(Surface profiler).............................46
3-6-4 原子力顯微鏡(AFM)..........................................47
3-6-5 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡(SEM)..................................50
3-6-6 穿透式電子顯微鏡(TEM)..................................51
3-6-7 太陽光譜模擬量測系統(Solar simulator system)
...................................................................................51
第四章 結果與討論...........................................................................53
4-1 材料光性..............................................................................53
4-2 材料物性..............................................................................55
4-2-1 功函數.......................................................................55
4-2-2 表面成膜粗糙度.......................................................57
4-2-3 分子結構大小...........................................................69
4-3 元件特性..............................................................................72
4-4 Pt NPs與Pd NPs結果相互比較.........................................77
第五章 總結.......................................................................................78
參考文獻.............................................................................................79
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