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研究生:徐培凱
研究生(外文):Pei-Kai Hsu
論文名稱:屏東大鵬灣浮游橈足類群聚之季節動態及日夜垂直分布與水文環境之相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):Seasonal and diel vertical distributions of copepod assemblages in relation to environmental factors in Tapong Bay, southwestern Taiwan
指導教授:石長泰石長泰引用關係羅文增
指導教授(外文):Chang-Tai ShihWen-Tseng Lo
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物科技暨資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:204
中文關鍵詞:季節動態橈足類大鵬灣日夜垂直分布
外文關鍵詞:Seasonalcopepoddiel verticalTapong Bay
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本研究是探討2003年至2005年期間大鵬灣海域浮游橈足類群聚小尺度的垂直遷移模式及時空變化,並比較大鵬灣蚵架移除前後之浮游橈足類群聚組成及豐度之差異,以及潮汐、水文及其他環境因子對浮游橈足類群聚分布可能之影響。大鵬灣內水文有明顯的乾(10~4月)濕(6 ~8月)季之分,且在其他季節以及年間皆呈現顯著的不同;乾季時灣內海水為低溫高鹽低葉綠素a濃度,而濕季時則相反。灣內橈足類呈現白天下沉,夜晚上升的日週性垂直遷移,且以夜晚時的豐度較白天高。在漲退潮的變化中,橈足類豐度以退潮時的豐度較漲潮時略高;種類數則因退潮時許多橈足類會隨著海流被帶出外海,因此較漲潮時略少。2003年至2005年雙月測線採樣的研究結果共發現橈足類18科31屬123種,平均豐度27562 ± 4447 ind. m-3,前六優勢分類群分別為Oithona oculata、Parvocalanus crassirostris、Acartia sinjiensis、Acartia sp.、Bestiolina amoyensis和Copepod nauplius,合佔超過所有橈足類豐度的74%。主要優勢種類豐度大多呈現明顯的季節變化,以秋冬季時的豐度較高。灣內橈足類的群聚組成在測站間有明顯的不同,近灣口測站主要以暖水高鹽的沿岸性種類居多;而近內灣的測站由於環境較類似河口地區,種類組成主要以體型較小的灣內種和養殖池種類居多。由指示種類的消長可以推估潮汐或是水團在大鵬灣內的影響範圍與分布狀況,本研究認為Acrocalanus gracilis為漲潮與近灣口測站的指標性物種;而退潮時則以Acartia sinjiensis最具代表性,同時也是近灣內測站的指標性物種。大鵬灣在蚵架拆除之後灣內橈足類的種類數與豐度皆較之前高,不過季節間和測站間的變化則變小了。此外,蚵架移除後灣內浮游植物的數量增多,加上海月水母無性水螅體缺乏可著生的基底而明顯地減少,也減低對橈足類的攝食衝擊,使得浮游動物與橈足類豐度較蚵架移除前高出數倍。
The small-scale vertical migration patterns and spatiotemporal variations of copepods in the Tapong Bay, southwestern Taiwan, from 2003 to 2005 were studied. The differences in species composition and abundance of copepods before and after the removal of oyster culture racks in relation to tides, hydrography and other environmental factors were also compared and herein discussed. Tapong Bay has distinct dry (October to April) and wet (June to August) seasons and exhibits apparent inter-annual variation, cold, saline and low Chl a concentration in dry season, and vice versa in wet season. Most copepod species displayed normal diel vertical migration, descending to the deeper water during daytime and ascending to near surface water at night. Copepods were always more abundant at night than during daytime. Higher abundance but smaller species number of copepods were found during ebb than flood tides. In all, 123 copepod species belonging to 18 families and 31 genera were identified. Oithona oculata, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Acartia sinjiensis, Acartia sp., Bestiolina amoyensis and copepod nauplius were predominant and together they composed 74% of the total number of copepods. These dominant species showed apparent seasonal changes, with higher abundance in autumn and winter. Copepod assemblage also showed apparent difference between stations. Warm-saline-coastal species dominated in the outer region, while small-size taxa and common species of estuaries and aquaculture ponds dominated in the inner bay. Results of indicator species analysis could possibly recognize the area affected by tides and water masses, and identified Acrocalanus gracilis to be the indicator species of flood tide and outer region of the bay, and Acartia sinjiensis the indicator species of ebb tide and inner bay. Our results showed that after the removal of oyster culture racks the species number and abundance of copepods were higher but the seasonal and spatial differences in abundance became smaller. Furthermore, the increase in abundance of zooplankton and copepods in the Bay after the removal of oyster culture racks might be due to the absence of oyster population which exerts great filter–feeding impact on phytoplankton, and decrease of predation pressure from moon-jelly that usually aggregated in the inner Bay and settled down their polyps on the oyster racks but disappeared after the removal.
中文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
英文摘要-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II
目錄----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV
表目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VI
圖目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IX
附表目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------XIII
附圖目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------XIV
壹 前言-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 橈足類的生態地位及其重要性-------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 橈足類的分類及形態-------------------------------------------------------------------2
1.3 橈足類的分布----------------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.4 潟湖的重要性及其相關研究----------------------------------------------------------6
1.5 研究區域介紹----------------------------------------------------------------------------7
1.6 研究目的----------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
貳 材料與方法---------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
2.1 採樣地點與時間-----------------------------------------------------------------------10
2.2 水文資料收集--------------------------------------------------------------------------10
2.3 浮游動物採樣--------------------------------------------------------------------------11
2.4 樣品鑑定與計數-----------------------------------------------------------------------11
2.5 資料分析--------------------------------------------------------------------------------12
參 結果------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
3.1 日夜垂直分布--------------------------------------------------------------------------14
3.2 漲退潮變化-----------------------------------------------------------------------------19
3.3 季節變化--------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
3.4 蚵架拆除前後變化--------------------------------------------------------------------31
肆 討論------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
4.1 大鵬灣內水文環境的變化-----------------------------------------------------------38
4.2 橈足類在大鵬灣的重要性-----------------------------------------------------------40
4.3 橈足類組成的日夜及垂直變化-----------------------------------------------------40
4.4 潮汐對於橈足類組成以及浮游動物的影響--------------------------------------44
4.5 橈足類豐度在季節及測站的變化--------------------------------------------------46
4.6 大鵬灣內主要優勢種橈足類組成的變化-----------------------------------------47
4.7 大鵬灣橈足類種群及站群的分析--------------------------------------------------50
4.8 指標物種分析--------------------------------------------------------------------------52
4.9 大鵬灣橈足類種類組成與附近潟湖之比較--------------------------------------53
4.10 蚵架拆除對於橈足類以及浮游動物的影響-------------------------------------55
伍 結論------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60
陸 參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62
表-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75
圖------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------102
附表---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------144
附圖---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------187
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