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研究生:楊財銘
研究生(外文):Cai-Ming Yang
論文名稱:利用LoweredADCP觀測蘭嶼附近的黑潮流場
論文名稱(外文):Observations of Kuroshio flows near Lanyu by usingLowered ADCP
指導教授:曾若玄曾若玄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruo-Shan Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物科技暨資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:溫塩深儀黑潮
外文關鍵詞:CTDKuroshio
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近十年來下放式聲學都卜勒海流剖面儀(Lowered ADCP,簡稱
LADCP)已經成為國際海洋學界上觀測整層海流剖面分佈的一項重要
儀器,這套設備的基本操作原理便是將一個或兩個自記式ADCP 連同
CTD 溫塩深儀一起在水文探測作業時下放到海中,藉由適當的資料處
理程序便可以取得整層海流的垂直分佈。本研究分別於2007 年4 月
21~25 日,7 月7~10 日以及10 月11~13 日利用國內第一套的LADCP
設備完成了蘭嶼海域黑潮三個航次的探測,收集了多個測站的海流資
料。研究結果顯示,黑潮有一支主軸是存在於台灣與蘭嶼之間,其強
度與位置隨著季節而變化,上層海流往北的最大流速有70~140
cm/s,10 月的流速較強(最大~140 cm/s),並可從海面延伸到約400 m
的深度;7 月的流速次之(最大~100 cm/s),可延伸到海面下600 m
的深度;4 月的流速較弱(最大~90 cm/s),可延伸到海面下400 m 的
深度。靠近台灣東南側沿岸的海流中層(水深約介於200 m 到800 m
之間)有一股朝南的反流,流速在30 到60 cm/s 之間,觀測到的這股
反流以4 月最大(~60 cm/s),7 月次之(~40 cm/s),10 月較小(~30
cm/s)。
4 月航次在蘭嶼東邊的海域發現一個海表面高度較低、逆時針方
向旋轉的冷渦。另外,7 月航次的觀測結果顯示,黑潮流向會受到當地潮汐的影響,退潮時向西北流,漲潮時向東北流。根據溫鹽資料的
分析結果,在蘭嶼附近的海域,越接近夏季,南海水入侵黑潮流域的
趨勢越為顯著。
In the last decade the lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
(LADCP) has become an important instrument in measuring
full-water-depth profile of velocity in the open ocean. The basic principle
of the LADCP is to lower one or two self-contained ADCP, one looking
downward and the other looking upward, together with the CTD rosette
during the hydrographic cast. After careful analysis of the ADCP data it is
possible to retrieve surface –to-bottom profile of horizontal current
velocity. In the present study we have conducted three cruises (21-25
April, 7-10 July and 11-13 October of 2007) in the Lanyu area to survey
the Kuroshio flow structure by using the first set of LADCP in Taiwan. A
total of 34 LADCP/CTD casts were completed. The results indicate that a
major branch of the Kuroshio is located at the region between Taiwan and
Lanyu, with a seasonal variation of flow intensity and vertical extent.
Surface currents can reach a maximum speed of 70-140 cm/s northward.
Kuroshio has a strongest speed (~140 cm/s) in October followed by July
(~100 cm/s) and April (~90 cm/s). The vertical extent of the Kuroshio can
extend to 400-m depth in October, 600-m depth in July and 400-m depth
in April. A southward reverse current can be observed off the southeast
Taiwan coast in depths between 200 and 800 m and the speed ranges
between 30 and 60 cm/s. This southward flow is strongest in April (~60
cm/s), followed by July (~40 cm/s) and October (~30 cm/s). A cyclonic,
cold eddy was observed in the eastern side of Lanyu from the shipboard
ADCP data during the April cruise. The Kuroshio flows to the northwest
during ebbs and to the northeast during floods from the LADCP observations at different tidal phases in July. Finally, analysis of the
temperature-salinity characteristics of the CTD data reveals that the South
China Sea waters can penetrate into and mix with the Kuroshio waters
more significantly in summertime than in other season.
中文摘要 ..............................................III
英文摘要 ..............................................V
目錄 ..................................................VII
圖目錄 ................................................IX
表目錄 ................................................XI
一、 前言 ..............................................1
二、 研究區域 ..........................................5
2.1 地理位置及海底地形...............................5
2.2 基本潮位分析.....................................6
2.3 風場.............................................7
三、 實驗設計與資料來源 ................................8
3.1 LADCP 基本操作與施放情形..........................9
3.2 Sb-ADCP..........................................12
3.3 CTD 水文資料......................................13
四、 資料分析...........................................14
4.1 LADCP 資料分析的兩種方法..........................14
4.1.1 剪切法(Shear method)…..………………………………..14
4.1.2 逆推法(Inverse method)……..…………………………..16
4.2 LADCP 資料處理過程................................18
4.3 LADCP 數據後期處理的困難處.........................18
五、 結果與討論 ..........................................20
5.1 LADCP 與Sb-ADCP 的流速比較.........................20
5.2 資料品質..........................................21
5.3 流場的季節性變化..................................22
5.4 台灣東南沿岸的反流與蘭嶼東邊的冷渦................25
5.5 潮汐的影響........................................27
5.6 南海水與黑潮水的混合..............................28
六、 結論與建議 .........................................30
七、 參考文獻 ...........................................32
Chen, C. and M. Huang, 1996, A mid-depth front separating the South
China Sea water and the Philippine Sea water. Journal of
Oceanography, 52, 17-25.
Centurioni, L. R. and P. P. Niiler, 2004, Observation of Inflow of
Philippine Sea Surface Water into the South China Sea through the
Luzon Strait , Journal of Physical Oceaography, 34, 113-121.
Chang, Y., Tseng, R. and C. Liu, 2008, Evaluation of tidal removal
method using phase average technique from ADCP Surveys Along the
Peng-hu Channel in the Taiwan Strait, Terrestrial, Atmospheric &
Oceanic Sciences (in press).
Fischer, J. and R. Gordon, 1990, Deep ocean acoustic Doppler current
profiling. Proc. IEEE Fourth Working Conf. on Current Measurements,
Clinton, MD, IEEE, 192–201.
Fischer, J. and M. Visbeck, 1993, Deep velocity Profiling with
self-contained ADCPs, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic
Technology, 10, 764-773.
Hwang, C., 1996, A study of the Kuroshio’s seasonal variabilities using
an altimetric geoid and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data , Journal of
Geophysical Research, 101, C3, 6313-6335.
Jan, S. and S. Chao, 2003, Seasonal variation of volume transport in the
major inflow region of the Taiwan Strait: the Penghu Channel.
Deep-Sea Research II, 50, 1117-1126.
Jing, C. and L. Li, 2003, An initial note on quasistationary, cold-core
Lanyu eddies southeast off Taiwan Island. ,Chinese Science Bulletin,
48, 19, 2101-2107.
Liang, M., 2003, Upper-ocean currents around Taiwan , Deep-Sea
Research II , 50, 1085–1105.
Nitani, H., 1972, Beginning of Kuroshio . In: Kuroshio,University of
Washington Press, Seattle,WA, 129-163.
Pond, S. and G. L. Pickard, 1983, Island wakes and headland eddies: A
comparison between remotely sensed data and laboratory experiments,
Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 783-794.
Thurnherr, A.M., 2007, How To Process LADCP Data With the LDEO
Software, 1-27.
Visbeck, M., 2001, Deep Velocity Profiling Using Lowered Acoustic
Doppler Current Profilers:Bottom Track and Inverse Solutions ,
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 19, 794-807.
劉倬騰、楊益、鄭世培、王正松、劉秦玉 (1995): 蘭嶼東南方的反流。
台灣海洋學刊,第34 期第一號。
劉倬騰、鄭世培、莊文思、楊益 (1998): 台灣海流(黑潮)的平均流速
與流量。台灣海洋學刊,第36 期第二號。
郭心順、楊慶軒、康建軍、田紀偉 (2006): LADCP 資料處理方法的
探討及其對應套裝軟體的使用。海洋技術,第25 卷第4 期。
王冑: 物理海洋學教材。
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