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研究生:沈俊宏
研究生(外文):Jun-Hong Shen
論文名稱:無線資訊系統上針對偏斜存取模式的資料擷取機制
論文名稱(外文):Data Access Mechanisms for Skewed Access Patterns in Wireless Information Systems
指導教授:張玉盈
指導教授(外文):Ye-In Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:偏斜存取模式電力保留資料廣播選擇性聽頻道無線網路
外文關鍵詞:Power ConservationData BroadcastSelective TuningSkewed Access PatternsWireless Network
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無線資料廣播是一種用來傳送數位資訊給裝配有行動設備的客戶端之有效方式。它提供大量的行動客戶端同時在無線環境中能隨時隨地存取資料。能使用無線資料廣播來傳輸資訊的應用包含股票交易資訊與交通狀況。在廣播檔案中加入索引技術 (選擇性聽頻道) 可以大量地減少行動設備的電源消耗,且又不會急劇地延長客戶端等待時間。大部分的選擇性聽頻道技術研究都假設每一個在無線頻道播放的資料都平均地被客戶端存取。在現實生活中,與冷門資料比起來,熱門資料較常被客戶端存取,即「偏斜存取模式」。在這博士論文中,為了有效地支援單頻道無線環境中偏斜存取模式之選擇性聽頻道技術,我們首先提出一個在均勻資料廣播上的偏斜分散式索引 (Skewed Distributed Index,SDI)。均勻資料廣播即每一個資料只會在同一廣播循環中播放一次。我們接著提出一個在非均勻資料廣播上的偏斜索引 (Skewed Index,SI)。非均勻資料廣播即少數熱門資料會比其它資料在同一廣播循環中播放多次。我們的 SDI 演算法考慮播放資料的存取機率與索引節點複製機制。這個演算法會尋訪一顆平衡樹的節點,根據子節點的存取機率來決定其父節點是否需要被複製。我們的效能分析與程式模擬結果顯示出,我們 SDI演算法的效能比 Variant-Fanout Tree Index 與 Distributed Index 這兩個演算法來得好。我們的 SI 演算法採用 Acharya 等人的 Broadcast Disks 產生資料排程,以達到減少客戶端等待時間。在此排程中,熱門資料會比其它資料播放較多次。我們的 SI 演算法接著針對排程的資料建立一顆偏斜樹。我們的演算法在同一廣播循環中針對熱門資料配置較多相關索引節點,針對冷門資料配置較少相關索引節點。我們的效能分析與程式模擬結果顯示出,我們 SI 演算法的效能比 Flexible Index 與 Flexible Distributed Index 這兩個演算法來得好。
Wireless data broadcast is an efficient way to disseminate digital information to clients equipped with mobile devices. It allows a huge number of the mobile clients simultaneously access data at anytime and anywhere in the wireless environments. Applications using wireless data broadcast to disseminate information include accessing stock activities and traffic conditions. Using index technologies on the broadcast file, i.e., selective tuning, can reduce a lot of energy consumption of the mobile devices without significantly increasing client waiting time. Most of the research work for selective tuning assumes that each data item broadcast on the wireless channel is fairly evenly accessed by mobile clients. In real-life applications, more popular data may be frequently accessed by clients than less popular ones, i.e., skewed access patterns. In this dissertation, to support efficiently selective tuning with skewed access patterns in the single-channel wireless environments, we first propose a skewed distributed index, SDI, on the uniform data broadcast, on which each data item is broadcast once in a broadcast cycle. Second, we propose a skewed index, SI, on the nonuniform data broadcast, on which a few popular data items are broadcast more frequently in a broadcast cycle than the others. The first proposed algorithm, SDI, considers the access probabilities of data items and the replication of index nodes. The proposed algorithm traverses a balanced tree to determine whether an index node should be replicated by considering the access probability of its child node. In our performance analysis and simulation results, we have shown that our proposed algorithm outperforms the variant-fanout tree index and the distributed index. The second proposed algorithm, SI, applies Acharya et al.''s Broadcast Disks to generate a broadcast program, in which the popular data items are broadcast more times than the others, in order to reduce client waiting time. Moreover, the proposed algorithm builds a skewed tree for these data items and allocates index nodes for the popular data items more times than those for the less popular ones in a broadcast cycle. From our performance analysis and simulation results, we have shown that our proposed SI outperforms the flexible index and the flexible distributed index.
LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Wireless Data Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Selective Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 A Classification of the Research Work for Selective Tuning . . . . . . 7
1.4 Motivations and Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4.1 A Skewed Distributed Index on the Uniform Data Broadcast . 12
1.4.2 A Skewed Index on the Nonuniform Data Broadcast . . . . . . 14
1.5 Organization of the Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2. A Survey of Index Structures for Selective Tuning . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1 Index Structures on the Uniform Data Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.1 Hashing A and Hashing B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.2 The TopK Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.1.3 The (1, m) Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.1.4 The Distributed Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.5 The Variant-Fanout Tree Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1.6 The Adaptive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.1.7 The Signature Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.1.8 The Hybrid Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.1.9 Imielinski et al.’s Flexible Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.1.10 The Exponential Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.2 Index Structures on the Nonuniform Data Broadcast . . . . . . . . . 36
2.2.1 Yu and Tan’s Flexible Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.2.2 The MHash Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.2.3 The Flexible Distributed Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.3 Index Structures on the Multichannel Data Broadcast . . . . . . . . . 41
2.3.1 The Alphabetic-Huffman-Tree Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.3.2 The Topological-Tree Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.3.3 The Separated Replication Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.3.4 The Stripping Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3. A Skewed Distributed Index on the Uniform Data Broadcast . . 51
3.1 A Skewed Distributed Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.1.1 Description of the Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.1.2 Control Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.1.3 Access Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.2 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.2.1 The System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.2.2 Analysis of Access Time and Tuning Time . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.2.3 Experimental Results: SDI vs. VF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.2.4 Experimental Results: SDI vs. DI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4. A Skewed Index on the Nonuniform Data Broadcast . . . . . . . . 78
4.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.2 A Skewed Index for Broadcast Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.2.1 Description of the Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.2.2 Access Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.3 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.3.1 The System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.3.2 Analysis of Access Time and Tuning Time . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.3.3 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.2 The Future Research Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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