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研究生:黃曜宗
研究生(外文):Yao-Tsung Huang
論文名稱:非具資訊背景的專案經理主導資訊專案所需之能力
論文名稱(外文):the Competence of Non-IT Background Project Manager Leading IT Project
指導教授:林信惠林信惠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin-Hui Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:191
中文關鍵詞:專案經理能力資訊專案專案管理
外文關鍵詞:Project Manager CompetencyProject ManagementIT Project
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  企業為因應經營環境的需要,增加了許多資訊科技(IT)專案的需求。大量的IT專案數量對於IT部門主管造成工作量過多且品質也相對降低。這些愈來愈多的IT專案需要更多的專案經理來主導,但企業當中能夠擔任IT專案經理的管理者並沒有相對地增多。而企業內有相當多的任務是以專案的型態在運作。許多管理者都有參與或主導過專案的經驗。這些擔任過專案經理的管理者已具備了某一程度的專案管理能力。企業是不是可以從這些非資訊背景的專案經理當中,挑選適合擔任IT專案經理的人選?
  本研究採用焦點團體法,訪談有主導過IT專案的專案經理,找出非資訊背景的專案經理主導IT專案所需要具備的能力。再深入訪談前三項最多人提及的能力,以瞭解這些能力對於非資訊背景的專案經理,在主導IT專案時有什麼特殊關係存在。
本研究最後之結論及貢獻如下:
1. 非資訊背景的專案經理在主導IT專案時應該具備「30項能力」。
2. 「溝通、規劃、控管」能力是要具備的基本能力,也是「前三項最重要的能力」。如果非資訊背景的專案經理沒有這三項能力,就無法擔任IT專案經理的職務。
3. 對非資訊背景的專案經理而言,比起資訊背景的專案經理,非資訊背景的專案經理欠缺的能力是資訊能力。其中重要性最高的是:「應用工具能力」,其次是「IT基礎知識」。
4. 非資訊背景的專案經理,他最需要的是「溝通能力」,來幫助他強化「規劃能力」以及「控管能力」的不足。
  More and more organisations are increasing the demand of Information Technology (IT) project owing to the rapid technological development in nowadays business environment. With the high growth of IT project, it can cause heavy work-overload for IT Managers, which often resulted in reduction of work productivity. In reality, a considerable number of tasks in organisation are operating by projects. These require more project managers to control. Unfortunately, industry analysis reveals that qualified IT project managers have not increased relatively. Many managers have experience in participation or leading in project management, which portrays those managers have reached a certain extent of competences of project management. It is possible that organisations can select qualified IT managers from those non-IT background managers.

  The study will use the theory of focus groups by interviewing some managers, who have the experience in IT project management, to identify the essential competences requirements of a non-IT project manager as being an IT project leader. Meanwhile, analyze the top three competences for IT project managers that usually mentioned by scholars so as to understand the critical impact asnd relationship for the non-IT project managers as leading IT project.

  The final conclusion and contribution of this study are as follows:
1. A non-IT project manager should have the "30 competences" in leading the IT related environment.
2. "Communication, planning and control," not only are the basic competences, but also "the most important competences". If the non-IT project manager is lacking these three competences, he is not qualified to be an IT project manager.
3. Compare to an IT project manager, a non-IT project manager is lacking the knowledge and skills within the IT environment. One of the most important aspects is tool capacity, followed by the "IT based knowledge"
4. A non-IT project manager needs a strong “communication skills" to help him strengthen the "planning capacity" and to overcome the inadequate "control capabilities".
目 錄
第一章 緒 論.......................................1
第一節 研究背景................................................................................1
第二節 研究動機................................................................................2
第三節 研究問題與目的.....................................................................2
第二章 文獻探討......................................4
第一節 專案及專案管理的定義...........................................................4
  一、專案的定義...........................................................................4
  二、專案管理的定義....................................................................6
  三、資訊技術(IT)專案..................................................................7
第二節 能力的定義.............................................................................8
第三節 專案經理能力之相關文獻.......................................................9
  一、專案經理能力之相關文獻.....................................................9
  二、IT專案經理能力之相關文獻...............................................12
  三、專案經理能力模型..............................................................13
第四節 IT專案的成功/失敗因素探討................................................20
第三章 研究設計與方法...............................23
第一節 研究流程..............................................................................23
第二節 研究架構..............................................................................25
第三節 研究方法...............................................................................26
  一、焦點團體法介紹..................................................................26
  二、焦點團體實施規劃..............................................................29
第四章 資料分析.....................................37
第一節 描述分析..............................................................................37
  一、焦點團體舉行場次描述.......................................................37
  二、受訪者背景、特質..............................................................37
  三、兩場焦點團體受訪者的異同...............................................40
第二節 訪談資料分析.......................................................................41
第三節 能力需求分析.......................................................................50
  一、擷取專案經理需要之能力...................................................51
  二、能力構面............................................................................54
  三、受訪者陳述歸納到能力名稱...............................................55
  四、分析非資訊背景專案經理所需具備之能力.........................55
  五、小結...................................................................................64
第四節 個別訪談分析.......................................................................65
  一、實施個別訪談.....................................................................65
  二、前三項重要能力分析..........................................................67
第五章 研究結論與建議...............................72
第一節 研究成果..............................................................................72
第二節 研究建議..............................................................................74
  一、IT專案經理之能力評鑑:30項能力清單...........................74
  二、非資訊背景的IT專案經理之挑選條件:溝通、規劃、控管.....75
  三、IT專案經理之溝通能力是首要條件...................................76
  四、如何運用「溝通、規劃、控管」這些能力.........................77
  五、如何強化、培訓非資訊背景的IT專案經理所欠缺的能力..78
  六、透過「溝通、規劃、控管」能力協助主導跨領域專案.......83
第三節 研究限制.............................................................................84
  一、文獻蒐集之不足.................................................................84
  二、研究方法設計與執行上的缺失...........................................84
第四節 後續研究建議......................................................................85
  一、能力評量系統....................................................................85
  二、能力培訓系統....................................................................85
第六章 參考文獻.....................................87
附錄一 第一場焦點團體訪談 分析報告..................92
附錄二 第二場焦點團體訪談 分析報告.................110
附錄三 焦點團體訪談 能力需求分析報告...............122
附錄四 個別訪談 分析報告...........................154

圖目錄
圖2-1 專案管理知識體系指南之九大知識領域..................................................16
圖2-2 企業主管應具備的六大群組能力...........................................................17
圖2-3 企業主管的五大核心職能.....................................................................18
圖2-4 專案管理系統過程..............................................................................21
圖3-1 研究流程..........................................................................................24
圖3-2 研究架構..........................................................................................25
圖3-3 焦點團體法之操作流程........................................................................29
圖4-1 「溝通、規劃、控管」三項能力之間的關聯性.........................................69
圖4-2 專案管理流程群組對應「計劃-執行-控制-行動」週期...................................71

表目錄
表2-1 專案類型及特徵的比較.........................................................................7
表2-2 ICB: IPMA Competence Baseline (專案管理能力基準) ..............................13
表2-3 BUCEC’s 專案管理能力模型................................................................14
表2-4 企業主管核心管理職能與專案管理能力的關聯表......................................19
表2-5 各種專案經理能力模型的比較...............................................................20
表4-1 焦點團體舉行場次..............................................................................38
表4-2 受訪者背景、特質..............................................................................38
表4-3 受訪者資料分析.................................................................................39
表4-4 能力名稱轉換....................................................................................51
表4-5 33項能力歸納一覽表........................................................................54
表4-6 專案經理能力比較表...........................................................................56
表4-7 能力名稱統計表.................................................................................59
表4-8 很重要、最重要的能力清單..................................................................63
表4-9 個別訪談之時間及受訪者.....................................................................66
表5-1 研究結果簡述....................................................................................72
表5-2 專案經理培訓計劃的執行控管流程........................................................80
表5-3 企業主管專案管理能力訓練流程、方法、及評量等級................................82
一、中文文獻
1. 宋明娥,「專案經理人資訊能力與資訊系統開發專案績效之研究」,台大國際企業學研究所碩士論文,2002年。
2. 林信惠,黃明祥,王文良,「軟體專案管理」,初版,智勝文化,2002年。
3. 姚翔,王垒,陳建紅,「專案管理者勝任力模型」,心理科學 Psychological Science, 27(6), 2004, pp.1497-1499
4. 黃昆明,「功能式矩陣組織研發管理關鍵成功因素之探討」,中山大學企業管理學系碩士論文,2001年。
5. 韓毓璿,「B2B電子商務軟體專案之管理領導與政治權力:個案研究」,中央大學資訊管理研究所碩士論文,2006年。
6. 劉孟華(2004)譯,「專案管理聖經」,臉譜出版社:“Mastering Project Management”, by James P. Lewis, 2003.
7. 中國生產力中心,「研究發展專案管理手冊」,1994年。
8. 魏梅金(2002)譯,「才能評鑑法」,商周出版:“Competence at Work”, by Lyle M. Spencer & Signe M. Spencer, 1993.
9. 李佳珍,「研發管理制度制定完整性之探討-以經濟部業界科專申請廠商為例」,中央大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,2003年。
10. 洪志成(2004)譯,「專案管理師」,弘智文化出版:“The World Class Project Manager: A Professional Development Guide”, by Robert K. Wysocki & James P. Lewis, 2001.
11. 陳玉波,「企業專案管理之風險評估流程」,中山大學資訊管理研究所碩士論文,2003年。
12. 曹延傑,「專案管理」,格致圖書有限公司,1990年。
13. 吳清山、林天祐,「教育新詞書(New Dictionary of Education)」,高等教育文化事業有限公司,2005年。
14. 歐素汝(1999)譯,「焦點團體:理論與實務」,弘智文化出版:“Focus Group: Theory and Practice”, by David W. Stewart & Prem N. Shamdasani, 1990. 。

二、英文文獻
1. Adams J.R., & Barndt S.E., “Behavioral Implications of the Project Life Cycle”, Project Management Handbook, D.I. Cleland and W.R. King(Eds.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 1988.
2. Bassellier, G., Reich, B.H. and Bennasat, I., “Information Technology Competence of Business Managers: A Definition and Research Model,” Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol.17, No.4, Spring 2001, pp.159-182.
3. Belassi, Walid and Oya Icmeli Tukel, “A new framework for determining critical success/failure factors in projects,” International Journal of Project Management, Vol.14, No.3, 1996, pp.141-151.
4. Bubshait, Khaled A. and Willem J.S., “Project Characteristics That Influence the Implementation of Project Management Techniques: A Survey”, Project Management Journal, l23, 1992, pp.43-47.
5. Cleland D.I., King W.R., “System Analysis and Project Management”, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983.
6. CompTIA, “Poor Communications is Most Frequent Cause of Project Failure,” CompTIA Web Poll Reveals, 2007.
7. Dash, Julekha, “Study: Non-IT Skills Affect Project Success,” a study by the Gartner Institute, 1990.
8. Drucker, Peter, “How to Be an Employee,” Fortune, May 1952, pp.126.
9. E.S. Andersen, K.V. Grude, T. Haug, J.R. Turner, “Goal Directed Project Management”, Kogan Page Limited, London, 1987.
10. Haynes, J.L., “A New Look at Managerial Competence: the AMA model of worthy performance”, Management Review, Nov. 1979, pp.2-3.
11. Jiang, James J., Klein, Gary, Margulis, Steve, “Important behavioral skills for IS project managers: The judgments of experienced IS professionals,” Project Management Journal, 87569728, Vol. 29, Issue 1, Mar. 1998.
12. Katz, R. L., “Skills of an Effective Administrator,” Harvard Business Review, Sept./Oct. 1974.
13. Lewis, James P., “Project Leadership”, McGraw-Hill, 2003.
14. Lewis, James P., “Project Planning, Scheduling and Control”, Irwin Professional Publishing, 1995.
15. Liz Maclachlan, “Making Project Management for You”, Library Association Publishing, London, 1996.
16. Meredith, J. R. and Mantel, S. J. J., “Project Management: A Managerial Approach”, New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1995.
17. Meredith, Jack R. & Mantel, Samuel L., “Project Management:A Managerial
Approach”, 5th Editor, John and Willy Publishing co., 2003.
18. Moder, J.J., “Network Techniques in Project Management”, Project Management Handbook, 2nd ed., D.I. Cleland & W.R. King(Eds.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1988.
19. Nicholas J.M., “Managing Business& Engineering Projects: Concepts & Implementation”, Prentice-Hall, 1990.
20. Pettersen, N., “Selecting Project Manager: An Integrated List Of Predictors”, Project Management Journal, 22 (2), 1991, pp.21-26.
21. Pinto, J.K. & Covin, J.G., "Critical Factors in Project Implementation: A Comparison of Construction and R&D Project," Technovation, Vol. 9, 1989, pp.49-62.
22. Pinto, J.K. & Slevin, D.P., “Critical Factors in Successful Project Implementation,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol.EM-34, No.1, Feb. 1987, pp.22-27.
23. Posner B.Z., “What’s the Fighting About? Conflicts in Project Management”, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 33 (4), 1987, pp.51-54.
24. Prahalad, C.K. and G. Hamel, “The Core Competence of the Corporation”, Harvard Business Review, May-June 1990, pp.79-91.
26. Project Management Institute, “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)”, Third Edition, 2000.
26. Project Management Institute, “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)”, Third Edition, 2004.
27. Rodrigues, Carl A., “Developing Three-Dimensions Leaders,” Journal of Management Development, 11 (3), 1993, pp.4-11.
28. Sievert, Richard W., “Communication: An Important Construction Tool.” Project Management Journal, Dec. 1986, pp.77.
29. Surya Lovejoy, “A Systematic Approach to Getting Results”, Gower, USA, 1996.
30. Tushman, M.L., “Technical Communication in R&D Laboratories: the Impact of Project Work Characteristics,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 21, 1978, pp.624-645.
31. Whitten, J. L. and Bentley, L. D., “Systems Analysis and Design Methods”, 4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
32. Zimmerer, Thomas W., and Yashin, Mahmoud M., “A Leadership Profile of American Project Managers,” Project Management Journal, 29 (1), 1998, pp.31-38.


三、網站部分
1. Career Framework, PMI Website
2. ICB/TNCB 專案管理能力基準, IPMA Website
3. Project Management Competency Model, BUCEC Website
4. PROJECT MANAGER COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT (PMCA) & PROJECT MANAGER SKILLS ASSESSMENT (PMSA), EII Website
5. 企業主管應具備的六大群組能力, Kris專案管理學院網站
6. 專案經理培訓計劃的執行控管流程, Kris專案管理學院網站
7. 企業主管PM能力訓練流程、方法、及評量等級, Kris專案管理學院網站
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