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研究生:王茂蕊
研究生(外文):Mao Jui
論文名稱:同步網路教室中影響社會臨場感因素之探討
論文名稱(外文):Exploring factors affecting social presence in a synchronous cyber classroom
指導教授:陳年興陳年興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nian-Shing Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:網路學習同步網路教室社會臨場感
外文關鍵詞:social presencesynchronous cyber classroomonline learning
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由於個人電腦與高速網路的普及,網路學習逐漸由非同步轉變為同步網路學習。學習者只需要準備電腦、耳機、麥克風和視訊設備,就能在同步網路教室中與其他參與者進行面對面的溝通。過去,網路教室被認為與傳統教室最大的差異在於無法提供面對面的互動,而同步網路教室具有即時與文字、語音、影像多溝通管道的特性,能夠提升學習參與者之間的互動程度。社會臨場感是衡量社會互動的指標之一,取決於個體對溝通環境和溝通對象的感知。文獻指出,增加社會臨場感有助於同步網路學習的參與度和滿意度,因此提升同步網路教室中的社會臨場感,將對學習參與和滿意有正面影響;找出同步網路教室中影響社會臨場感的因素,將會有助於提昇網路學習的成效。由於相關研究不足,因此本研究以社會學習理論為基礎,探討同步網路學習環境中影響社會臨場感的重要因素,並且驗證社會臨場感對於學習參與和互動的影響,以確認社會臨場感對於同步網路學習的重要性。基於社會臨場感為時間累積後的結果,故採用問卷調查法進行研究。研究母體為實際參與過同步網路課程的學習者,以web surveys 的方式進行資料收集,樣本來源包括中山網路大學、k12 數位學校及各大學的BBS 站,共回收252 份有效問卷進行統計分析。研究結果指出,同步網路教室中影響社會臨場感的因素為親密性、使用者親和性、回應性、外向性和線索豐富度,而且學習者的社會臨場感對於學習參與度和互動滿意度存在顯著的正向影響。最後依據研究結果給予學術理論與教學實務兩方面之適當建議,以及未來研究的可行方向。
As a result of personal computers and broadband Internet connections become very popular, online learning converts asynchronous learning into synchronous learning or blended learning. This implies that synchronous communication becomes an essential part of online learning and learners now are able to see others face-to-face online just like in traditional classrooms. In the past, the major difference between cyber classroom and traditional classroom is that cyber classroom cannot provide face to face interaction. However, a synchronous cyber classroom features real-time and multiple video communication channels can overcome this shortage and even promoted better attention and engagement for learners. Social presence is an indicator to measure the degree of social interaction, determined by the perception of an individual to environments and other individuals. The prior researches have indicated that increasing social presence is helpful to enhancing learning participation and satisfaction in a synchronous cyber classroom. Hence, we argue that promoting social presence in a synchronous cyber classroom would have a positive effect on learners’ learning participation and satisfaction. The aim of this study is to explore the factors affecting social presence in a synchronous cyber classroom. We will apply social learning theory as a basis to verify if social presence does have a positive effect on learning outcome and what factors affect social presence in a synchronous cyber classroom learning environment. Because the perception about social presence is accumulated as time goes by, a questionnaire survey is used in this study. The target population is drawn upon the learners who have had real experiences of participations in learning with synchronous cyber classrooms. The questionnaires were carried out on the Web. The subjects were learners from the National Sun Yan-Sen Cyber University, the K12 digital school and some others from the PTT BBS. The total number of valid questionnaires is 252. The research result indicates that the factors affecting social presence in a synchronous cyber classroom are intimacy, user friendliness, responsiveness, extraversion, and cue richness. Moreover, social presence does have a positive effect on learning participation and satisfaction. The contribution of this study is finding out the factors affecting social presence from the social learning theory perspective. If teachers could pay attention to these factors and try to apply them for enhancing learners’ social presence, learners’ learning outcome is greatly improved in a synchronous cyber classroom environment. This study is concluded by pointing out some suggestions for practice and future research.
論文提要 ......................................................................................................................... I
致 謝 ....................................................................................................................... II
摘 要 ...................................................................................................................... IV
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... V
Contents ...................................................................................................................... VI
List of Figures .......................................................................................................... VIII
List of Tables ............................................................................................................... IX
Chapter 1 Introduction .............................................................................................. 11
1.1 Research background and motivation ..................................................................... 11
1.2 Research purpose and issue ..................................................................................... 15
1.3 Research scope ........................................................................................................ 16
1.4 Research procedure ................................................................................................. 16
1.5 Framework of thesis ................................................................................................ 17
Chapter 2 Literature review ..................................................................................... 19
2.1 Synchronous cyber classroom ................................................................................. 19
2.1.1 Introduction of synchronous cyber classrooms ........................................... 19
2.1.2 Comparison between synchronous cyber classrooms and traditional cyber
classrooms ............................................................................................................... 21
2.1.3 Features of synchronous cyber classrooms ................................................. 22
2.2 Social learning theory .............................................................................................. 23
2.2.1 Theory of social learning ............................................................................. 23
2.2.2 Connection between social learning theory and social presence ................ 24
2.3 Social presence theory ............................................................................................. 24
2.3.1 Definitions of social presence ..................................................................... 25
2.3.2 Factors affecting social presence ................................................................. 28
2.3.3 Social presence and communication ........................................................... 30
2.3.4 Social presence and e-learning .................................................................... 31
2.3.5 The teaching strategy to enhance social presence ....................................... 32
2.4 Individual characteristics and social presence ........................................................ 33
2.4.1 Extraversion ................................................................................................ 33
2.4.2 Neuroticism ................................................................................................. 34
2.4.3 Self-consciousness ...................................................................................... 34
2.4.4 Self-efficacy ................................................................................................ 34
2.5 User interface and social presence .......................................................................... 35
2.5.1 User Friendliness ......................................................................................... 36
2.5.2 Media richness ............................................................................................. 36
2.6 Social relationship and social presence ................................................................... 37
2.6.1 Familiarity ................................................................................................... 38
2.6.2 Similarity ..................................................................................................... 38
2.7 Real-time interactivity and social presence ............................................................. 38
2.7.1 Immediacy ................................................................................................... 39
2.7.2 Intimacy ....................................................................................................... 39
2.7.3 Responsiveness ............................................................................................ 40
Chapter 3 Research method ...................................................................................... 41
3.1 Research framework and research hypotheses ........................................................ 41
3.2 Operational definition of research variables ........................................................... 44
3.3 Research participants ............................................................................................... 48
3.4 The method of data analysis .................................................................................... 50
Chapter 4 Research instrumentation ....................................................................... 52
4.1 Procedure of research instrumentation development .............................................. 52
4.2 Data collection ......................................................................................................... 54
4.3 Pilot test ................................................................................................................... 56
4.3.1 Items of pilot test ......................................................................................... 56
4.3.2 Analysis of pilot test .................................................................................... 63
4.4 Formal questionnaire ............................................................................................... 76
4.4.1 Items of formal questionnaire ..................................................................... 76
4.4.2 Reliability and validity of formal questionnaire ......................................... 84
4.5 Web survey system ................................................................................................ 100
Chapter 5 Data analysis ........................................................................................... 102
5.1 Demographics ........................................................................................................ 102
5.2 Analysis of the factors affecting social presence .................................................. 105
5.3 Analysis of learning outcome affected by social presence .................................... 110
5.4 Research results ..................................................................................................... 112
Chapter 6 Discussion ............................................................................................... 114
6.1 Individual characteristics factors ........................................................................... 114
6.2 User interface factors ............................................................................................ 115
6.3 Social relationships factors .................................................................................... 118
6.4 Real-time interactivity factors ............................................................................... 119
6.5 Relationships between social presence and learning participation and interactivity
satisfaction ..................................................................................................................... 121
6.6 Power of explanation ............................................................................................. 121
Chapter 7 Conclusion .............................................................................................. 123
7.1 Research finding .................................................................................................... 123
7.2 Research contribution ............................................................................................ 125
7.3 Research limitation ................................................................................................ 127
7.4 Future research ...................................................................................................... 129
Reference................................................................................................................... 131
Appendix 1 Questionnaire of pilot test................................................................... 141
Appendix 2 Questionnaire of pilot test in Chinese ................................................ 148
Appendix 3 Questionnaire of formal test ............................................................... 155
Appendix 4 Questionnaire of formal test in Chinese ............................................ 162
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