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研究生:施威志
研究生(外文):Wei-Chih Shih
論文名稱:強韌型微控器之設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of Robust Micro-Control Unit
指導教授:邱日清
指導教授(外文):Jih-Ching Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:強韌容錯微控器除錯
外文關鍵詞:robustfault-toleranton-chip debuggingmicro-control unit
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VLSI製程的進步使得外在環境的干擾更容易影響微控器的運作,現在的設計不只追求速度與效能,也開始研究各種容錯(fault-tolerant)技術以提升可靠度及安全性。為開發符合市場導向之容錯微控器。本論文以ARM 9相容指令集雙核心處理器為基礎,設計具容錯技術的強韌型微控器(Robust Micro-Control Unit : RMCU)。強韌型微控器的容錯機制分為兩種運作模式:同步模式(Synchronize mode)及處理器測試模式(Processor test mode)。在同步模式下藉由兩個處理器同時執行同一程式的比較結果偵測其中一個處理器所發生的暫時性錯誤(transient fault),當暫時性錯誤發生,兩個處理器將使用指令重試(instruction retry)機制進行系統的回復。若同一位址的指令重試次數大於設定值則視為永久性錯誤(permanent fault),系統將進入處理器測試模式進行雙核心處理器的功能性測試,依照測試結果關閉錯誤處理器並使系統回復正常運作。此作法解決傳統雙核心處理器容錯架構無法修正永久性錯誤的限制,提升雙核心處理器之容錯能力。除了容錯機制的設計外,為提升軟硬體的驗證及開發本論文設計了強韌型微控器之除錯平台。此除錯平台包括強韌型微控器內部以JTAG為基礎的OCD (On-Chip Debugging)單元以及除錯介面程式,除了提供讀寫暫存器及記憶體、設定Breakpoint、Watchpoint以及單步執行外增加了主動插入External Interrupt功能,提供更有效的ISR (Interrupt Service Routine)除錯。在論文的最後我們使用FPGA實現強韌型微控器容錯機制及除錯平台,經過模擬與測試後證實了強韌型微控器之可行性。
With the progress in VLSI technology, the external environment makes it easier for the interference affected the operation of microcontroller. The design of the recently microcontroller, not only the pursuit of speed and performance, also began the study of the various fault-tolerant technology to enhance the reliability and safety. This thesis, being designed for the Fault-tolerant microcontroller according market, presents a Robust Micro-Control Unit : RMCU for dual core architecture of ARM9 ISA.
The RMCU provides two operation modes: synchronize mode and Processor test mode for fault-tolerant mechanism. In synchronize mode, both processors are executing the same program concurrently. The results generated by processors are compared, and every mismatch indicates a transient fault in one of the two processors. When the transient fault occurred, the two processors will use Instruction retry mechanism, recover system operation. If the same address''s errors larger than the number of settings are considered permanent fault, processors will be held, and entered the processor test mode for processor functional test. In accordance with the test results to close the wrong processor and operating system back to normal. This approach to solve the traditional dual-core processor fault-tolerant architecture that can not be fixed to permanent-fault restrictions.
In addition to the design of fault-tolerance mechanism, for the upgrading of software and hardware development and validation of this paper design of the RMCU debug platform. RMCU debug platform including JTAG-based OCD (On-Chip Debugging) unit, and debug interface program. In addition to providing read and write registers and memory, set Breakpoint, Watchpoint and single-step but also take the initiative to increase the external interrupt inserted to provide a more effective ISR (Interrupt Service Routine) debug. In the last of the thesis, we use the FPGA Implementation of the RMCU fault-tolerant mechanisms and debug platform. After simulation and testing, the results prove the feasibility of RMCU.
摘要................................................i
ABSTRACT .........................................iii
目錄................................................v
圖片列表..........................................vii
表格列表...........................................ix
第一章 簡介.........................................1
1-1 研究動機........................................1
1-2 研究目的........................................2
1-3 論文架構........................................2
第二章 相關研究.....................................3
2-1 錯誤類型........................................3
2-2 常見的容錯處理器................................4
2-2-1 TMR processor ................................4
2-2-2 Fault-tolerant for VLIW processor.............5
2-2-3 IBM Power6 Microprocessor ....................6
2-2-4 Instruction retry for Dual-core processor.....7
2-3 容錯處理器之分析與討論..........................8
2-4 自我測試........................................9
2-4-1 Built-In Self-Test............................9
2-4-2 Software-Based Self-Testing..................10
2-5 除錯平台介紹...................................11
2-5-1 OCD..........................................11
2-5-2 JTAG.........................................12
2-5-3 除錯平台功能.................................20
第三章 強韌型微控器容錯機制之設計..................22
3-1 ARM 9 處理器架構...............................22
3-2 強韌微控器容錯架構.............................24
3-3 強韌微控器容錯機制的運作模式...................25
3-3-1 Synchronize mode ............................25
3-3-2 Processor test mode .........................27
3-4 指令重試機制...................................29
3-4-1 Instruction retry unit.......................29
3-4-2 處理器的比較.................................30
3-4-3 影響指令重試的指令...........................33
3-5 處理器測試機制.................................39
3-5-1 Processor test unit..........................40
3-5-2 Register test ...............................42
3-5-3 Datapath test ...............................45
3-6 External Interrupt 錯誤機制....................47
第四章 支援軟體除錯之架構設計......................49
4-1 強韌型微控器之除錯架構.........................49
4-2 OCD unit.......................................50
4-2-1 Control unit.................................52
4-2-2 BWI unit ....................................54
4-2-2 RF_RW unit...................................56
4-3 OCD 運作流程...................................57
4-3-1 讀寫處理器內部暫存器以及記憶體...............57
4-3-2 設定Breakpoint ..............................58
4-3-3 設定Watchpoint...............................60
4-3-3 單步執行.....................................64
4-3-4 插入External Interrupt ......................64
第五章 模擬與測試..................................66
5-1 強韌型微控器之合成結果.........................66
5-2 強韌型微控器容錯架構之模擬測試.................67
5-2-1 指令重試模擬測試與分析.......................68
5-2-2 處理器測試模擬測試與分析.....................72
5-3 強韌型微控器除錯平台之測試.....................79
第六章 結論........................................83
參考文獻...........................................84
附錄...............................................88
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