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研究生(外文):Lesly Appolon
指導教授(外文):Chang-chung LiShin-Horng Chen
外文關鍵詞:microfinanceregulatory reformissuesfinancial institution
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Microfinance and micro-credit practices have become a popular means of local development. This research provides an overview of micro finance Latin America and the Caribbean with specific emphasis on Haiti. The thesis contained number of issues related to financial regulation and supervision that could potentially pose obstacles to financial institutions involved in microfinance. This research explores the conditions under which micro credit is an appropriate rural development intervention. Although there are a great number of financial regulations which in one way or another affect the institutions which lend to micro entrepreneurs, the study focuses on those regulations which, while appropriate for most other financial institutions, may have a negative impact on microfinance institutions. These regulations impose restrictions that are particularly costly to institutions involved in microfinance, either by raising the cost of financial service delivery or by not providing the intended reduction in risk to the institution. The research identifies a number of areas in which such biases against microfinance exist or could potentially exist, including, capital requirements, loan loss provisioning, usury laws, documentation, and restrictions on the operations of financial entities. The areas of potential and actual bias are summarized at the end of the paper where some recommendations are also put forward on how to address them.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
1.1. Background
1.2. Overview of Micro-Finance in Developing Countries
1.3. Regulation and policy issues of the Micro-Finance Industry
1.4. Thesis Document Structure
1.5. Limitations and Assumption of the Research
Chapter 2 - Literature Review
2.1. Regulation and Supervision of Microfinance: Issues and Approaches
2.2. Latin America Micro-Finance Crises
2.3. The current situation of the micro-finance in Haiti
2.4. A review of the provisions of the Micro-Financed Regulations:
2.5. Who regulates who and how?
2.6. Results by country in the sub-region
2.7. Analysis of the literature survey: General Approach to Regulation
2.8. Tiering
Chapter 3 - Purpose and Scope of Research
3.1. Research question and methodology
3.2. Motivation & Challenge for choice of subject matter
3.3. Evaluation of the effects of credit access and program participation:
A case study of Haiti Women's Finance Trust (HWFT

Chapter 4 -Analysis
4.1. The current situation of micro finance-finance in Haiti in comparison to the sub-region
4.2. The performance of Haiti MFIs vs. the sub-region
4.3. Demand and use of financial services: A case study in Haiti
4.3.1. Access, demand and use of credit questions answered by household surveys.
4.4. Analysis of how the regulation of microfinance can be successful in Haiti
4.5 The principle in detail
4.5 Principle I: Pooling together peoples resources
4.5.1 Principle II: Relying and building upon what people know (tradition)
4.5.2 Principle III: Reinforcing microfinance to empower the African private sector
4.5.3 Principle IV: Striving for efficiency, which include maintenance of tools and better working habits.
4.6 Analysis of the Strength and Potency of my principle and approach comparable to the existing methodology applied in Haiti
4.6 Why is my approach the solution to the current situation of operation and regulation in Haiti?
Chapter 5 - Proposal to improve innovation in self-employed start-ups through micro-finance
5.11. Regulatory Reform
5.1.2. Business Environment
5.1.3. Commercialization for sustainability
5.2. Commercialisation
5.3. Size and Growth
5.4. Risk
5.5. Cost Structure
5.6. Theories of Governance and Optimum
5.7. Fallacies of the State
5.8. Recommended framework and approach for Haiti and other developing countries
Chapter 6- Conclusions
6.1. Conclusions and Policy Implications
6.2. A genuine regulation will support the provision of services to the poor, rural
areas and the weak?
6.3. The future of micro finance
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[2] Patrick Meagher, Microfinance Regulation in Developing Countries: A Comparative Review of Current Practice, October 2002, IRIS Center, University of Maryland
[3] The Impact of Regulatory Policies on Provision of financial Services to the Poor, International Conference on Rural Finance Research: Moving Results into Policies and Practice, FAO Headquarters, Rome Italy, 19-21 March 2007.
[4] Johan Dahlstrand, Commercialisation for Sustainability: “Micro-Finance Institutions in Haiti”, Minor Field Study * 2002 * Series No. 82, Stockholm.
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[6] World Bank, 2003, Scaling Up Access to Finance: On the Critical Path to the MDGs: The Roles of Governments, Donors and the Private Sector, mimeo.

[7] Armendariz de Aghion, B. and Morduch, J. 2005. The Economics of Microfinance Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press
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[10] Gonzalez A. and Rosenberg, R. 2006. The State of Microfinance – Outreach, Profitability and Poverty: Findings from a database of 2600 Microfinance Institutions. Paper presented at the conference Access to Finance: Building Inclusive Financial Systems. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Group and the Brookings Institution.
[11] Sannino I, and de Araujo Dantas, V.2005. Estudio de las cooperativas de credito Y posibilidades de cooperacion con recursos FOMIN. Informe de Consultoria BID. Milan, Mimeo
[12] Tejerina L., and Westly G. 2006. “Poor households and the financial sector: identifying the gaps in borrowing and savings, “Inter-American development Bank. Manuscript.
[13] Westley G. 2001, “Can Financial Market Policies Reduce Income Inequality”? Sustainable Development Department Series Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Division Technical Paper (MSM-112). Washington, D.C.: inter-American Development Bank.
[14] Aryeetey, E., “How important are formal and informal finance to micro-enterprise development in Africa?,” in Rural Development and Finance in West-Africa (University of Ougadou-gou, Ougadougou, Burkina Faso.: 2004).
[15] Balkin, Steven, "A Grameen Bank Replication: The Full Circle Fund of the Women's Self-Employment Project of Chicago." Chapter 14 in A. Wahid (ed.) The Grameen Bank of Bangladesh: A New Direction in Poverty Alleviation. WestviewPress, 2006
[16] Bath, Paquita, and Dinora Mendes de Sanchez, eds. 1990. The Evolution of a Relationship: A History of OEF International and OEF de EI Salvador. an Salvador: Asociacion para la Organizacion Empresarial Femenina de EI Salvador (OEF/ES)
[17] Bayadas, Mayada M., Douglas H. Graham, and Liza Valenzuela. (1997). "Commercial Banks in Microfinance: New Actors in the Microfinance World." Occasional Paper No. 2372, Rural Finance Program, Ohio State University.
[18] Beuningen, Coen van (2006) 'Outline for Impact Assessment in the Credit Line', mimeo, Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP), Washington DC.
[19] Boomgard, James J., James Hern, Calvin Miller, and Richard H Patten. 192. "A Review of the Prospects for Rural Financial Institution Development in Bolivia." GEMINI Technical Report No. 3 1. Bethesda, MD: Development Alternatives, Inc.
[20] Micro Banking Bulletin. “Focus on Savings,” July 2006, No. 9, pp. 72-76; www.mixmbb.org.

[21] Microcredit Summit Campaign Report 2000, 2000; www.microcreditsummit.org/campaigns/ report00html#overview.
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