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研究生:雪凱莉
研究生(外文):Schaffer Kellie Marie
論文名稱:StrategicBusinessModelInnovationintheSolarPhotovoltaicIndustry:ACaseStudyofthePPABusinessModel
論文名稱(外文):太陽能光電產業營運模式之策略創新:PPA營運模式之個案研究
指導教授:李傳楷李傳楷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chuan-Kai Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:科技管理學院IMBA碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:solar photovoltaic industrycase studybusiness model innovationpower purchase agreementinnovation
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While a major focus of the Solar PV Industry is on upstream developments in cost reductions and cell efficiency gains in manufacturing of solar cells and modules, there is also considerable work to be done downstream to bring solar to the end-user. Although many technical issues in manufacturing have been overcome there remain numerous non-technical challenges downstream which must be addressed in order to deliver solar energy to consumers at a mass commercial scale. While solar is already cost competitive with traditional energy sources in regions that have high utility costs, offer incentives and subsidies, and have prevalent sunlight it has yet to reach significant mainstream market penetration even in these areas. Out of the many challenges downstream which prevent consumers from taking the leap to solar, many opportunities exist here for innovative new business models to join current efforts in solar manufacturing to integrate and install solar systems helping to deliver solar energy to the final customer. The primary research of this thesis highlights the innovative PPA business model which is effectively overcoming some of these non-technical challenges end-users face when seeking to install solar PV systems. By using a solar Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), end-users agree to pay only for the power they consume from solar systems installed at their site, not the investment of the solar equipment or installation costs. The PPA provider firm serves as a financing intermediary arranging the capital investment through third party equity investors. This business model effectively overcomes the initial financial barrier which prevents consumers from using solar electricity. In fulfilling the purpose of this thesis the following research questions were addressed: What is unique about the Solar PV Industry? Why is business model innovation important in the development of the solar industry? Why did the PPA business model innovation emerge and what factors contribute to its success? An overall industrial analysis of the solar PV industry is presented, followed by a case study analysis of two PPA firms (Sun Edison, Sun Run) and one non-PPA firm (Borrego). Building upon the data revealed at the firm specific level, a generic business model schematic is constructed to highlight the differences in the PPA versus non-PPA business models.
Summary ........................................................................................................................................ ii
Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................... iii
List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. viii
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ ix
Chapter I – Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1
Purpose of Study and Research Questions ................................................................................. 3
Methodology and Theoretical Framework ................................................................................. 4
Rationale for Case Study Unit of Analysis ................................................................................... 6
Organization of the Study ........................................................................................................... 6
Chapter II - Business Model Literature Review ............................................................................... 8
Business Model Concept ............................................................................................................. 8
Purpose of Business Model Literature Review ........................................................................... 8
Business Model Definitions ......................................................................................................... 9
Components of a Business Model ............................................................................................. 14
Strategic Elements in Business Models ..................................................................................... 21
Types of Business Models ......................................................................................................... 23
Business Model Synthesis ......................................................................................................... 25
Synthesized Theoretical Framework ......................................................................................... 26
Business Model Innovation ....................................................................................................... 28
What is Business Model Innovation? ........................................................................................ 28
Business Process versus Business Model Innovation ................................................................ 29
Disruptive Innovations and New Business Models ................................................................... 29
Sustaining Innovations and Business Process Innovations ....................................................... 30
Gary Hamel’s Business Model / Concept Innovation: ............................................................... 30
Synthesis of Major Authors’ Concepts ...................................................................................... 30
Types of Business Model Innovation ......................................................................................... 31
The Co-Development Partnership Business Model Innovation ................................................ 33
Chapter III – Methodology ............................................................................................................ 34
Case Study Methodology Rationale .......................................................................................... 34
v
Case Study Methodology .......................................................................................................... 35
Case Study Protocol ................................................................................................................... 36
Data Sources .............................................................................................................................. 37
Collection Procedures ............................................................................................................... 38
Analysis of Case Study Evidence ................................................................................................ 39
Chapter IV-Overview of Solar PV Industry .................................................................................... 40
Solar Energy Types .................................................................................................................... 40
Historical Development of Solar PV Industry ............................................................................ 40
Major Photovoltaic Technologies .............................................................................................. 41
Solar Industry Life Cycle ............................................................................................................ 46
Solar Five-Forces Analysis.......................................................................................................... 48
The Global PV Solar Market ...................................................................................................... 55
The Solar PV Supply Chain ..................................................................................................... 55
Solar Market Segments by Application Type ......................................................................... 60
Global Market Demand ......................................................................................................... 61
Geographic Markets .............................................................................................................. 61
Global PV Cell Production ...................................................................................................... 64
The United States Solar Market Environment .......................................................................... 67
Macro-Level Analysis ............................................................................................................. 67
Market Factors Contributing to the PPA Model Development ............................................. 68
The Federal Investment Tax Credit (ITC) ............................................................................... 69
State Incentives and Mandates ............................................................................................. 70
Renewable Portfolio Standards ............................................................................................. 70
Environmental Attributes ...................................................................................................... 73
Renewable Energy Credits ..................................................................................................... 73
Interconnection Standards and Net Metering Rules ............................................................. 74
Local Level Policies and Barriers ............................................................................................ 75
Leading States’ Promotions of Solar ...................................................................................... 76
Policies Impact on Future Prospects for U.S. PV Market Development ................................ 77
The Extended American Solar Supply Chain .......................................................................... 78
The Solar PV Value Network in the USA ................................................................................ 78
vi
Chapter V- Results and Conclusions ............................................................................................. 81
Power Purchase Agreement Definition ..................................................................................... 81
Firm level Business Model Case Study Reports ......................................................................... 82
Borrego Solar Systems Inc. .................................................................................................... 82
Company: SunRun Generation LLC. ....................................................................................... 85
Company: Sun Edison LLC ...................................................................................................... 88
Research Findings ...................................................................................................................... 92
Major Differences in Business Model Components .............................................................. 93
Business Model Schematics ................................................................................................... 94
Connecting with Business Model Innovation Theory ............................................................. 103
Discussion: Using PPAs to Cross the Chasm ............................................................................ 104
Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 106
References.................................................................................................................................. 108
Appendix .................................................................................................................................... 115
Industry Analysis Tools ............................................................................................................ 115
The Supply Chain, Value Chain, and Value Network ............................................................... 115
The Supply Chain ................................................................................................................. 115
Value Chain .......................................................................................................................... 115
Porter’s Value System .......................................................................................................... 117
The Value Network .............................................................................................................. 117
Porter’s Five Forces Model ...................................................................................................... 120
The Macro-Environment and P.E.S.T. Analysis ....................................................................... 122
The Industry Life Cycle ......................................................................................................... 124
Market Analysis Tools.............................................................................................................. 128
Technology Adoption Life Cycle and the Diffusion of Innovation ....................................... 128
Crossing the Chasm ............................................................................................................. 130
Innovation Literature Review .................................................................................................. 131
Innovation Theories................................................................................................................. 131
Schumpeter’s Creative Destruction ..................................................................................... 131
Product-Process Innovation: The Abernathy and Utterback Model ................................... 132
The Technology S-Curve Model ........................................................................................... 133
vii
The Incremental-Radical Dichotomy ................................................................................... 134
Disruptive Innovation Theory .............................................................................................. 135
Business Strategy Theory Literature Review ........................................................................... 136
Brief Review of the Strategy Literature ............................................................................... 137
Mintzberg’s Ten Schools of Classification ........................................................................... 137
Michael Porter’s Position School and Industrial Analysis Framework ................................ 138
The Resource Based View (RBV) .......................................................................................... 139
Core Competencies .............................................................................................................. 140
Strategic Convergence ......................................................................................................... 141
Blue Ocean Strategy and the Value Innovation Model ....................................................... 141
Value Innovation .................................................................................................................. 142
Company Interview Questions ............................................................................................ 144
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