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研究生:蕭啟賢
研究生(外文):Chi-hsien Hsiao
論文名稱:可調式抒壓座椅之設計開發與評估
論文名稱(外文):Design and Evaluation of a Pressure-Released Office Chair
指導教授:蔡昆宏蔡昆宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuen-Horng Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺南大學
系所名稱:系統工程研究所碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:下背痛抒壓坐姿
外文關鍵詞:low back painsitting position
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下背痛為一牽涉腰薦椎、臀部及大腿之急性或慢性疼痛症狀。由於工作環境的需求,許多人需要長期採取坐姿的型態,然而坐姿會導致腰椎弧度的變化以及肌肉負荷的增加,此乃是造成下背痛主要的危險因素。同時由於臀部長時間的承受較高的壓力,也容易造成組織血液循環不良進而引起疼痛現象的發生。在現有產品方面,不管是在維持腰椎弧度或是抒緩臀部壓力,都是單一對於背墊或是椅墊來進行設計,無法同時達到維持腰椎弧度及臀部抒壓之效果。因此本研究自行開發一新型抒壓座椅,同時整合背墊及椅墊之設計,能於人體採取坐姿時維持腰椎之自然曲線及抒緩臀部壓力。
在研究方法方面,本研究同時針對背墊及椅墊來進行設計,分別設計出一背墊曲線及位置調整機構與坐骨支撐調整機構,使背墊的形狀及位置能隨著不同的體型或坐姿型態來做適當的調整,並同時抒緩臀部所承受的壓力。在評估方面,利用Tactilus壓力感測系統及荷重計(load cell)來分別量測於使用傳統座椅及可調式抒壓座椅時,其人體與座椅間的接觸壓力分佈與反作用力變化之情形,最後再利用X-ray攝影技術來觀察腰椎曲線的變化。
結果顯示,使用可調式抒壓座椅時,經由壓力分佈圖的觀察可發現,背部所承受的壓力較為集中於腰部位置,且臀部所承受的壓力有明顯抒緩的情形;在負荷分佈方面,背部所承受負荷則有增加的趨勢,而臀部與大腿所承受的負荷則分別明顯地減少與增加;而X-ray所拍攝的照片也顯示在使用可調式抒壓座椅時,腰椎所呈現的曲線能趨近於站立時之自然曲線。
因此使用可調式抒壓座椅時,能在坐姿時有效地減少坐骨粗隆所承受的負荷,其中可調式調整機構能使背墊的形狀更符貼於腰椎的曲線以增加腰部接觸面積進而減少背部肌肉的負擔,並且盡量維持腰椎前凸的曲線,減少造成下背痛的發生率。
Low back pain (LBP) is acute or chronic pain involving the lumbosacral, buttock, and/or thigh. Lots of people need to take sitting position for a long time due to working environment; nonetheless sitting position usually causes flexed curvature of the lumbar spine and increased load of the muscles. Both of them are the dangerous factors causing LBP. Meanwhile, since the buttock takes higher pressure for a long time, the blood circle of tissue is likely to get worse and then cause pain. For the products available so far, all of them are designed for either the part of seat or back support, regardless of maintaining the curvature of the lumbar spine or soothing the pressure of the buttock. Such designs will not satisfy both of the effects in one model. Hence the researcher created a newly designed soothing chair, which integrated the design of both the back support and the seat; in that the nature curvature of the lumbar spine will be kept and the pressure of the buttock can be mitigated.
In the aspect of research method, the researcher designed the back support and the seat simultaneously. The back-support curvature adjustment mechanism and the ischium support adjustment mechanism were designed respectively in order to alter the shape and the position of the back-support at appropriate adjustments and also soothe the load of buttock. In the aspect of evaluation, Tactilus pressure sensor system and Load cell were applied to detect the changes of the stress and the counter-acting force distribution between human body and the chair. The evaluation were applied to traditional chair and adjustable soothing chair respectively and compared. X-ray was also applied in the process.
The result shows that, when the adjustable soothing chair was used, the loads of back had more been focused around the waist and the loads of buttock were significantly mitigated as the stress distribution figure shows. For the load distribution, the loads of back had increasing tendencies; while the loads of buttock and thigh had significantly decreased and increased respectively. The X-ray photo pictures also showed that, when the adjustable soothing chair was used, the curvature of the lumbar spine was closed to the nature curvature in standing position.
In conclusion, the load of ischial tuberosities could be effectively mitigated in sitting position when the adjustable soothing chair was used; the adjustable mechanism could make the shape of the back-support match more with the curvature of lumbar spine, so that the touching face of waist toward the chair was increased and then the load of back muscle was decreased.
一、緒論
1-1研究背景與動機
1-1-1前言
1-1-2人體脊椎之構造
1-1-3下背痛之原因
1-1-4坐骨壓力負荷
1-1-5現有產品之分析
1-1-6專利分析
1-2研究目的
1-3研究流程

二、研究方法
2-1實驗評估座椅
2-1-1抒壓座椅之功能性需求探討
2-1-2功能性需求之概念設計
2-1-3抒壓座椅之機構設計
2-2實驗流程與步驟
2-2-1實驗坐姿型態
2-3實驗儀器設備
2-3-1 Tactilus壓力感測系統
2-3-2荷重計
2-3-3 X-ray攝影技術
2-3-4 InstruNet資料收集系統
2-4實驗參數
2-4-1壓力分佈參數量測
2-4-2負荷參數量測
2-4-3腰椎曲線
2-4-4統計與分析

三、研究結果
3-1座椅實體打造
3-2壓力分佈圖
3-3負荷量測
3-3-1背部區域
3-3-2臀部區域
3-3-3大腿區域
3-4腰椎曲線

四、討論
4-1實體設計
4-2接觸壓力壓力分佈
4-3人體與座椅之間的反作用力
4-4腰椎前凸曲線


五、結論
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