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研究生:唐喬娜
研究生(外文):Giovana Patricia Tang Chau
論文名稱:不同比例黎豆取代魚粉對白蝦成長之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of protein replacement in fishmeal by beans of Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) in different percentages on growth of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
指導教授:冉繁華冉繁華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fan-Hua Nan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:白蝦黎豆魚粉蝦類營養
外文關鍵詞:Litopenaeus vannameiMucuna pruriensFish mealShrimp Nutrition
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本實驗目的在探討白蝦飼料中,利用黎豆取代魚粉蛋白質來源對白蝦成長之影響,本實驗黎豆粉取代率分別為25 %、50 %、75 %、100 %。本實驗蝦苗初重為1.37 – 1.41克,每組24隻蝦,實驗組為2重複,養殖在室內循環系統,實驗為期70日,每日投餵2餐,分別在08:00及20:00。
  
本實驗結果顯示,25 %及50 %取代組與商業飼料及未取代組別在增重率、飼料轉換率及存活率無顯著差異。

  依照本實驗結果以商業角度分析,取代魚粉25 %、50 %及未取代魚粉飼料投餵飼養1公頃白蝦,得知隨取代魚粉比例增加,蛋白質成本相對降低,但整體而言仍以投餵未取代魚粉飼料可獲得最大收益 NT ﹩260673.47。

根據本實驗結果顯示,對白蝦養殖而言,黎豆為良好植物性蛋白來源,並可減少飼料中魚粉蛋白質使用率及降低白蝦飼料成本。
The increasing economical and environmental concerns regarding the use of fish meal in diets for aquaculture have led to the development of replacement strategies in which plants are seen as a reliable source of lower production costs. This study evaluated a fish meal replacement strategy using a plant protein source in treatment diets for marine white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

The use of mucuna beans was evaluated as a replacement for fish meal in practical diets. Animal protein was replaced with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of mucuna beans meal respectively. Post larvae of Litopenaeus vannamei were reared indoors. Each treatment had a replicate containing groups of 24 shrimps (100/m2) per aquarium arranged in a completely randomized design. Shrimps initial mean weight ranged from 1.37 ± 0.09 and 1.41 ± 0.17. The shrimp were hand fed twice daily at 08:00 and 20:00 for 70 days.

The results showed that mucuna bean is a good alternative source for protein in white shrimp diets and can replace fish meal in levels from 25 % to 50 %. The results also showed no significant different effect in weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate.

From the economic point of view, the partial gross returns for the protein source were compared simulating a 1 hectare culture of white shrimp and using results from the treatment diets that showed no significant differences among them according to final mean weight. The results showed that as more mucuna was replaced on every diet, the protein costs were lowered, but control diet had an increased partial gross return of NT$ 260 673.47 compared to the 25% replacement with NT$ 198 897.26 and the 50% mucuna had NT$ 184 153.84.

According to these results we can have a good usage of the mucuna beans in replacement of the fishmeal especially from the economic point of view since we can reduce the price of the feed, which is the major cost in the culture of most aquatic species and in this case in the white shrimp culture.

In conclusion, the replacement of fish meal with mucuna beans as a plant protein source in white shrimp practical diets is feasible.

Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei; Mucuna pruriens; Fish meal; Shrimp Nutrition
Page
Acknowledgements .................................................................... i
Abstract ……………………………………………………….. iv
Table of contents ……………………………………………... vii
List of tables ………………………………………………….. ix
List of figures ………………………………………………… x
List of annex …………………………………………………. xi
Introduction …………………………………………………... 1
Paper review …………………………………………………. 6
Aquaculture world production ……………………………….. 6
Aquaculture production of species …………………………… 6
Importance of the marine white shrimp in aquaculture ……… 8
Culture of white shrimp ……………………………………… 8
Water quality parameters in shrimp culture ………………….. 9
Nutritional requirements ……………………………………... 9
Protein ………………………………………………………... 10
Shrimp feeds …………………………………………………. 12
Plant protein sources …………………………………………. 13
Mucuna pruriens ……………………………………………... 15
Production and biochemical composition ……………………. 15
Crude protein ………………………………………………… 16
Crude lipid …………………………………………………… 16
Ash content …………………………………………………... 16
Mucuna pruriens feeding trials ………………………………. 17
Anti-nutritional features ……………………………………… 19
L-Dopa ……………………………………………………….. 19
Phytic acid ……………………………………………………. 20
Measurement of growth and weight …………………………. 22
Materials and methods ……………………………………….. 23
Location of the experiment …………………………………... 23
Experimental design …………………………………………. 23
Preparation of the diets ………………………………………. 23
Proximate analysis …………………………………………… 24
Feeding trial and Management ……………………………….. 26
Economic costs of feeds in the diets …………………………. 27
Statistical analysis ……………………………………………. 28
Results ………………………………………………………... 29
Proximate composition of the experimental diets ……………. 29
Biological performance of the diets ………………………….. 30
Final weight ………………………………………………….. 30
Weight gain …………………………………………………... 31
Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) ………………………………... 31
Survival rate ………………………………………………….. 32
Economic results of the diets ………………………………… 32
Discussion ……………………………………………………. 34
Conclusion …………………………………………………… 40
References ……………………………………………………. 41
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