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研究生:黃重景
研究生(外文):Chong-Jing Huang
論文名稱:飼糧類胡蘿蔔素、魚體色及多種光照對孔雀魚成長、呈色、尾傷復原及配偶選擇之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Dietary Carotenoids, Body Color, and Illumination Variety on Growth, Pigmentation, Tail Wound Healing, and Mate Selection of Guppy Poecilia reticulate
指導教授:陳瑤湖陳瑤湖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yew-Hu Chien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:類胡蘿蔔素孔雀魚配偶選擇傷口復原光照成長
外文關鍵詞:CarotenoidGuppyMate SelectionWound HealingIlluminationGrowth
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孔雀魚(Guppy, Poecilia reticulate)尾鰭的顏色與完整程度不但影響其市場價格,同時也可能影響其族群內之擇偶與交配。本研究因此而進行兩試驗:試驗I:飼糧類胡蘿蔔素對雄孔雀魚的尾鰭著色、尾傷復原及成長之影響與試驗II:光照顏色及時間點對孔雀魚配偶選擇之影響。試驗I:探討飼糧添加4種200mg/kg的類胡蘿蔔素(蝦紅素、β-胡蘿蔔素、黃體色素、玉米黃素)及沒有添加色素的控制組,對於3種尾巴顏色(紅尾、黃尾、藍尾)及2種尾巴狀態(剪尾、未剪尾)的公孔雀魚的尾巴著色、尾巴復原力及成長之影響。結果顯示飼糧中添加類胡蘿蔔素組的魚的成長、復原力及飼料轉換率高於控制組。尾色效應顯示3種顏色尾巴有不同的顏色表現。飼糧蝦紅素有效增加紅色著色,β-胡蘿蔔素能增加黃色著色。剪尾會造成紅度、黃度及彩度減少,但導致光度的增加。以飼糧200 mg/kg的類胡蘿蔔素的劑量在4週內,尚不足以使孔雀魚的顏色有顯著的提昇。新長出來的尾鰭的色素細胞的型態並不受各處理的影響。另外玉米黃素及β-胡蘿蔔素對於魚體藍色增色並無貢獻,因此建議應該從藻藍蛋白及彩虹色素細胞的結構型態方面著手來探討藍色體色增加的確切原因。由於孔雀魚體色的呈現可能影響雄魚獲得雌魚交配權,因進行此試驗II:探討在3種顏色的螢光環境下(紅螢光、白螢光、藍螢光),於3個照光長短時間(清晨、中午、傍晚)下,觀察母孔雀魚對4種不同顏色尾巴公孔雀魚(紅尾、黃尾、藍尾、黑尾)的配偶選擇的差異。透過顏色單純化的人工孔雀魚來作為實驗對象,並且特別設計了陷阱式的箱網來定量4種顏色雄魚被選擇的機率,且比較兩種雌魚選擇方式(團體、個別)的差異。結果顯示各顏色尾巴的雄魚被選擇的機率分別為紅尾48 %,黃尾31 %,藍尾10 %,黑尾6 %,另有5 %的雌魚未作出選擇。在3種螢光平均下,紅尾雄魚被選擇的機率在中午被選擇的機率高於清晨及傍晚;在白螢光下,紅尾雄魚被選擇的機率在3個時段之間並沒有差異。紅尾雄魚在照白螢光時被選擇的機率最高,黃尾雄魚被選擇的機率在3種顏色螢光之間並沒有差異,藍尾雄魚在藍螢光下被選擇的機率最高,黑尾雄魚被雌魚選擇的機率不受到螢光顏色的影響,雌魚未做出選擇的機率在紅螢光照射下最高。未作出選擇的雌魚在個別擇偶比在團體擇偶比例高。本實驗顯示擇偶行為受到對象體色、光照顏色、照光長短以及個別或團體去選擇的影響,或可應用在以調控環境的條件,讓魚提高自然交配的機率,達到育種的目的。
Color and integrity of tail fin of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) affects not only its market price but also mate selection and breeding within a population. Two experiments were therefore conducted: I. Effects of dietary carotenoids on pigmentation, wound healing and growth of tail fin of male guppy and II. Effects of illumination color and timing on guppy’s mate selection. Experiment I was to find out the effects of 4 diets supplemented with 200 mg/kg carotenoids (astaxanthin, β-carotene, lutein, or zeaxanthin) and a control diet on pigmentation, wound healing and growth of tail fin of male guppy of 3 tail colors (red, yellow, and blue) combined with 2 tail status (sheared and intact). The results indicated that fish fed diets supplemented with carotenoids had better growth, wound healing and feed conversion than control fish. The pigmentation effects of dietary carotenoids varied with fish with different tail colors. Astaxanthin effectively enhanced pigmentation of red color and β-carotene on yellow. Tail shearing resulted in reduction of redness, yellowness, and chroma but increase of lightness. Dietary carotenoids level at 200 mg/kg and 4 weeks’ feeding were not sufficient to increase fish color. Morphological parameters of the regenerate chromatophores post shearing were not affected by any treatment. Dietary lutein and β-carotene had no contribution to blue body color, which maybe affected by phycobiliprotein and structure of iridophores, remaining to be studied. Since female guppy may have mating preference towards different color male, Experiment II was conducted to observe the frequency of female guppy attracted by males of 4 tail colors (red, yellow, blue, and black) under 3 florence light colors (red, white, and blue) at 3 durations of illumination (dawn, noon, and dusk). Only cultured single and pure color males were used. The attraction frequency was determined by the ratio of the number of female guppy entered the trap accommodated with certain color male to the total number of female turned loose. The females were turned loose either individually or by batch of total 10 fish. The results showed females’ preferences towards male color were red tail 48%, yellow tail 31%, blue tail 10%, black tail 6%, and undetermined 5%. Disregard fluorescent light color, red-tail male had higher chance being chosen at noon than at dawn and dusk. However, under white fluorescent light, there was no difference in frequency among 3 durations when red-tail male was chosen. Among 3 fluorescent light colors, red-tail male had the highest frequency being chosen under white fluorescent light. There was no difference in frequency of being chosen for yellow-tail male under 3 fluorescent light colors. Blue-tail male had the highest chosen frequency under blue fluorescent light. The frequency of black-tail being chosen was not affected by fluorescent light color. Female could not make decision the most under red fluorescent light. The frequency that female did not make choice was higher when they had been turned loose individually than by batch. Since it has been showed in this study that mate selection was affected by male tail color, illumination color and duration, and making decision by individual self or by group, which can be applied to breeding technology to promote natural mating frequency to acquire desired breeding by environment manipulation.
謝辭-------------------------------------------------------i
總摘要-----------------------------------------------------v
英文摘要----------------------------------------------------v
目錄-----------------------------------------------------vii
表目錄----------------------------------------------------xi
圖目錄----------------------------------------------------xv
圖版目錄--------------------------------------------------xiv
略語表----------------------------------------------------xv
第一章 總前言-----------------------------------------------1
第二章飼糧類胡蘿蔔素對雄孔雀魚的尾鰭著色、尾傷復原及成長之影響與試驗
摘要------------------------------------------------------10
1前言-----------------------------------------------------11
1.1類胡蘿蔔素的簡介-----------------------------------------11
1.2玉米黃素及β-類胡蘿蔔素對於藍色的著色效果-------------------12
1.3組織傷害及修復與類胡蘿蔔素之關係---------------------------13
1.4色素細胞------------------------------------------------14
1.5顏色的綜合表現(Entire colour index, ECI)----------------16
1.6孔雀魚對於研究的優勢-------------------------------------16
1.7產業問題及研究目的---------------------------------------17
2材料與方法------------------------------------------------17
2.1實驗設計------------------------------------------------18
2.2飼糧準備------------------------------------------------18
2.3實驗生物------------------------------------------------19
2.4實驗環境------------------------------------------------20
2.5衡量參數------------------------------------------------20
2.5.1成長-------------------------------------------------20
2.5.2飼料效果----------------------------------------------21
2.5.3色素細胞----------------------------------------------21
2.6統計分析------------------------------------------------23
3結果-----------------------------------------------------24
3.1成長及飼料效果------------------------------------------24
3.1.1日比成長(Daily specific growth rate) -----------------24
3.1.2尾復原力(Recovery ability) ---------------------------25
3.1.3尾成長率(Tail length gain) ---------------------------25
3.1.4飼料轉換率(Feed conversion rate) ---------------------26
3.2色素細胞的顏色------------------------------------------26
3.2.1紅度(a*) --------------------------------------------26
3.2.2黃度(b*)---------------------------------------------27
3.2.3光度(L*)---------------------------------------------27
3.2.4色相(Hue)--------------------------------------------27
3.2.5彩度(Chroma)-----------------------------------------28
3.2.6 顏色的綜合表現(Entire colour index, ECI)-------------28
3.3色素細胞的型態------------------------------------------29
3.3.1色素細胞面積(Chromatophore area)----------------------29
3.3.2細胞半徑(Average dimension)---------------------------29
3.3.3細胞圓度(Circle factor)-------------------------------29
4討論-----------------------------------------------------30
4.1成長、復原力及飼料效果-----------------------------------30
4.1.1日比成長(Daily specific growth rate) -----------------30
4.1.2尾復原力(Recovery ability)----------------------------32
4.1.3尾成長率(Tail length gain) ---------------------------35
4.1.4飼料轉換率(Feed conversion rate)----------------------37
4.2色素細胞的顏色------------------------------------------38
4.2.1尾色效應----------------------------------------------39
4.2.2飼糧類胡蘿蔔素效應-------------------------------------40
4.2.3剪尾效應----------------------------------------------42
4.2.4時間效應----------------------------------------------42
4.3色素細胞的型態------------------------------------------43
4.4 玉米黃素及β-胡蘿蔔素對於藍色的著色效果--------------------44
結論------------------------------------------------------46

第三章 光照顏色及時間點對孔雀魚配偶選擇之影響
摘要------------------------------------------------------61
1前言-----------------------------------------------------62
1.1配偶選擇的重要性-----------------------------------------62
1.2光照對生物的影響-----------------------------------------63
1.3孔雀魚對於研究的優勢-------------------------------------63
1.4產業問題及研究目的---------------------------------------64
2材料與方法------------------------------------------------65
2.1實驗設計------------------------------------------------65
2.2擇偶設施------------------------------------------------65
2.3光照與時段----------------------------------------------66
2.4擇偶過程------------------------------------------------67
2.5衡量參數------------------------------------------------67
2.6 統計分析-----------------------------------------------67
3結果-----------------------------------------------------68
3.1不同光照顏色及不同光照時段--------------------------------68
3.2不同選擇方式及不同光照時段--------------------------------68
4討論-----------------------------------------------------69
4.1照光時段的影響------------------------------------------69
4.2螢光顏色的影響------------------------------------------71
4.3擇偶方式的影響------------------------------------------73
4.4野外族群------------------------------------------------74
結論------------------------------------------------------77
附錄1-----------------------------------------------------81
參考文獻---------------------------------------------------83
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