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研究生:蘇皇銘
研究生(外文):Hung-Ming Su
論文名稱:飼糧蝦紅素及光照時段對血鸚鵡之活存、成長、呈色及褪色之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Dietary Astaxanthin and Light Regime on Survival, Growth and Skin Pigment Formation and Fading in Blood Parrot (Cichlasoma var. )
指導教授:陳瑤湖陳瑤湖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yew-Hu Chien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:血鸚鵡合成蝦紅素血球藻紅酵母呈色褪色光照
外文關鍵詞:Cichlasoma varSynthetic astaxanthinHaematococcus pluvialisPhaffia rhodozymaPigment FormationLight
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血鸚鵡為台灣觀賞魚之一,其色澤為市場價值中最重要的指標。因為魚類無法在體內合成蝦紅素,必須仰賴食物供給來達到呈色效果。本研究之目的包括二部份:第一部份探討飼糧中不同蝦紅素源與不同濃度對於尚呈黑色之幼血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色與褪色之影響。添加蝦紅素之9組飼糧系由3種蝦紅素源:合成蝦紅素、紅酵母及血球藻與3種蝦紅素濃度:50、100及200 mg/kg之組合,未添加蝦紅素之飼糧為控制組。每種飼糧投餵3魚缸之魚 (平均個體重的1.2g)達48週,並於12週、34週及48週取樣以評估其活存、成長、及體表呈色。爾後6週即(48-54週)僅投餵控制組飼糧以觀察其褪色狀況。在34週及48週控制組之魚的TA則皆低於9組色素組。3種色素源在呈色的段期間對魚之TA有不同的影響:12週時為合成≧紅酵母≧血球藻,34週時為血球藻≧紅酵母≧合成,48週則為紅酵母=合成=血球藻。這種不一致的反應可能歸諸於各色素源蝦紅素的型式與組成、轉換與消化吸收程度的差異,並可能與魚體大小以及體蝦紅素的累積程度有關。飼糧蝦紅素濃度僅在34週對魚體TA有影響:200 mg/kg>100 mg/kg>50 mg/kg。可能是12週時魚體黑色素尚未完全褪去,TA的累積對飼糧蝦紅素與濃度反應不敏感以及48週魚之體蝦紅素累積已達飽合有關。二部份就針對魚的大小進行兩項試驗,探討光照與飼糧蝦紅素來源活存、成長、呈色及褪色之試驗。試驗A之4處理為:2因子光照及黑暗×2種飼料為合成蝦紅素與控制組之組合,進行48週呈色,再6週之褪色實驗。測量活存、成長、體表呈色與褪色,試驗B之6處理為:2因子光照及黑暗×3種飼料為合成蝦紅素、紅酵母及控制組之組合,進行17週,再9週之褪色實驗。在實驗A小魚1.2g及實驗B大魚6.8g中,其光照與黑暗均不影響成長與活存,在呈色方面同樣在12週小魚合成蝦紅素TA含量為21.83 mg/kg,大魚合成蝦紅素TA含量為133.63 mg/kg,大魚TA的含量為小魚的6倍,這結果顯示了,大魚吸收蝦紅素的能力要來的比小魚好。實驗B在皮膚呈色部份光照組0-17週TA含量上升了89%,黑暗組TA含量上升71%。在皮膚褪色部份光照組9週即(18-27)週TA含量下降了41%,黑暗組TA含量下降18%。飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡在光照下呈色較快,而褪色速率也來得快,黑暗下呈色速度慢,但相對的褪色也比較慢,有助於留住血鸚鵡體內之蝦紅素。
Since fish is unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, it has to rely on dietary supply. Dietary carotenoids concentration usually corresponds to body carotenoids content and concomitantly, the body color. Therefore, ornamental fish feed has to contain carotenoids to enhance and maintain fish body color, which is an important criteria reflecting market price of fish. Two experiments were conducted in this study to find out the effects of dietary astaxanthin and light regimes on survival, growth, pigmentation, and color fading of blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.). In Experiment I, 9 pigment diets supplemented with 3 astaxanthin sources (synthetic, red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, and red algae Haematococcus pluvialis) at 3 carotenoid concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and a control diet without carotenoids supplement were fed to juvenile fish (average 1.2 g) for 48 weeks. Each diet had 3 replicate tanks. Only control diet was fed to all fish after 48th week for 6 weeks to compare astaxanthin sustaining ability of the original 10 diets. Survival, growth, and body surface astaxanthin content were measured at 12th, 34th, 48th, and 54th week. Until 12th week, body surface total astaxanthin (TA) of control fish was still no different from fish fed 6 pigmented diets. At 34th and 48th week, body surface TA of control fish was lower than fish fed all 9 pigmented diets. During pigment enhancing period, up to 48th week, body surface TA responded to various astaxanthin sources differently: synthetic ≧ red yeast ≧ red algae at 12th week, red algae ≧ red yeast ≧ synthetic at 34th week, and all three were of no difference at 48th week. This inconsistent response from these astaxanthin sources could be attributed to various types of astaxanthin, carotenoids composition, digestibility of source material, and absorb and conversion ability of theirs. Other possible affecting factors included fish size and astaxanthin deposition and saturation relationship. Dietary astaxanthin concentration had effects on body surface TA only at 34th week: 200mg/kg>100mg/kg>50mg/kg. This could be attributed to melanin still dominated at 12th week when fish was too small to be able to respond to dietary astaxanthin sensitively and astaxanthin accumulation had already reached saturation at 48th week. In Experiment II, 2 trials were conducted to find out the influence of illumination regime and dietary astaxanthin by their body size. In trial A, the same juvenile fish were reared under 4 treatments: 2 light regime (24 h light or dark) X 2 diets (supplemented with synthetic astaxanthin at 200 mg/kg and a control) for 48 weeks and 6 weeks for body astaxanthin deposition and withdrawal, respectively. In trial B, subadult fish (6.8 g) were reared under 6 treatments: 2 light regime (24 h light or dark) X 3 diets (2 supplemented with synthetic astaxanthin and red yeast at 200 mg/kg and a control) for 17 weeks and 9 weeks for body astaxanthin deposition and withdrawal, respectively. Both trials showed that survival and growth were not affected by treatments. For both trials, when fish all under the same treatment (synthetic astaxanthin 200 mg/kg) and at 12th week, subadult fish in trial B had body surface TA content 133.63 mg/kg, 6 times the TA content in juvenile fish in trial A, 21.83mg/kg. This indicated that big fish had higher astaxanthin deposition efficiency than small fish. In trial B, skin TA of fish in light group increased 89% in the first 17 weeks, but that in dark group increased 71%. During the 9 weeks’ pigment withdrawal period, skin TA of fish in light group decreased 41%, but that in dark group decreased only 18%. It appeared that both deposition and withdraw of astaxanthin in skin of blood parrot were faster under light than dark. These results can be applied to enhance and retain pigmentation by light regime manipulation.
目 錄
頁次
謝辭…………………………………………………………………….....i
中文摘要…………………………………………………………...….....ii
目錄……………………………………………………………………...vi
表目錄……………………………………………………………….…..xi
圖目錄……………………………………………………………..…....xv
圖版.........................................................................................................xvi
略語表………………………………………………………..……......xvii
第一章 總前言…………………………………………………………..1
1. 台灣觀賞魚產業與市場…………………………………………...…1
2. 血鸚鵡的介紹……………………………………………………..….2
3. 血鸚鵡的經濟價值…………………………………………………...2
4. 血鸚鵡的繁殖與養殖………………………………………………...3
5. 觀賞魚的揚色飼料...............................................................................4
6. 類胡蘿蔔素在魚類轉換的能力……………………………………...4
7. 影響魚類色澤的飼料因子………………………………………...…5
7.1色素源的種類……………………………………………………….5
7.2 魚體大小及成長率………………………………………………...6
7.3 生物消化率……………………………………………………...…6
8. 光照週期對魚類影響……………………………………………….7
第二章 飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色及褪色之影響
摘要………………………………………………………………………8
前言..........................................................................................................11
材料與方法……………………………………………………………..14
1.實驗設計…………………………………………………………...…14
2. 蝦紅素來源及飼糧的準備………………………………………….14
3. 實驗魚苗來源及養殖環境佈置準備…………………………….…15
4. 取樣與衡量參數…………………………………………………….15
4.1 衡量的參數……………………………………………………….15
4.2冷凍乾躁機操作...............................................................................16
5. 魚體表蝦紅素分析………………..………………………………...16
5.1 AX標準品萃取及分析…………………………….……………...16
5.2 BC標準品萃取及分析……………………………………………17
5.3 樣本蝦紅素萃取及分析………………………………………….17
5.4 HPLC分析條件與操作步驟……………………………………...18
6. 統計分析………………………………………………………….....18
結果……………………………………………………………………..19
1.成長與活存………………………………………………………..….19
1.1活存率…………………………………………………………...…19
1.2成長…………….…………………………………………….…….19
2. 呈色……………….………………………………………………....19
2.1體表總蝦紅素(TA)含量…………………………….…….……19
2.2體表的β-胡蘿蔔素(BC) 含量………………………………...…..20
2.3體表的雙酯蝦紅素(DA)含量………………………..….……..20
2.4體表的單酯蝦紅素(MA)含量..………………………………...20
2.5體表的游離態蝦紅素(FA)含量………………………………...21
3. 褪色………………………………………………………….………21
3.1體表的總蝦紅素(TA)含量…………...…….……….……….…21
3.2體表的β-胡蘿蔔素(BC) 含量………………………………...…..21
3.3體表的雙酯蝦紅素(DA)含量…………………………….……..22
3.4體表的單酯蝦紅素(MA)含量…………………..…………..….22
3.5 體表的游離態蝦紅素(FA)含量……………………….…..…..22
討論……………………………………………………………………..23
1. 成長與活存…………………………...……………………………..23
2. 呈色…………………………………………...……………………..23
2.1濃度效應………………………………………………………...…23
2.2 蝦紅素種類效應……………………………………………….…24
2.3 生命期效應……………………………………………………….26
3. 褪色………………………………………………………...………..26
第三章 光照與飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色及褪色
之影響
摘要………………………………………..........................................…43
前言..........................................................................................................44
材料與方法…………………………………………………………..…46
1.實驗設計……………………………………………..……………….46
2. 實驗魚苗來源及養殖環境佈置準備……………………...……..…46
3. 採樣照相方法……………………………….....................................47
4. 取樣與衡量參數…………………………………………...………..47
4.1 衡量的參數……………………………………………….….…...47
4.2冷凍乾燥機操作…………………………………………………..48
5. 魚體表蝦紅素分析…………………………………….....................48
5.1 AX標準品萃取及分析……………………………………..……..48
5.2 BC標準品萃取及分析…………………………….…..………….48
5.3 樣本蝦紅素萃取及分析………………………………….…..…..48
5.4 HPLC分析條件與操作步驟……………………………….....…..49
6.統計分析………………………………….…..………..……………..49
結果…………………………………………………….…….……..…..50
實驗A………………………………………………..……………...…..50
1.活存………………………….………….……………………......…...50
2.成長……..………………………………………………..……..….…50
3.呈色…………………………………………………………..…...…..50
4.褪色…………………………………............................................…...51
實驗B…………….……………………………………….……...……..52
1.活存………………..……………………………….......................…..52
2.成長………………………………………………...………………....52
3.呈色………………………………………………...………………....52
3.1 皮膚β-胡蘿蔔素(BC)…………………………………….......…..52
3.2皮膚雙酯化態蝦紅素(DA)……………………........................…..53
3.3 皮膚單酯化態蝦紅素(MA)………………...………..…………...53
3.4 皮膚游離態蝦紅素(FA)…………………..………...………….....53
3.5皮膚總蝦紅素(TA)……………………………...……………..…..54
3.6鰭β-胡蘿蔔素(BC)…………………………...…………………....54
3.7鰭雙酯化態蝦紅素(DA)…………..………………………………54
3.8鰭單酯化蝦紅素(MA)…………………………………………......55
3.9鰭游離態蝦紅素(FA)…………….…………………………..…....55
3.10鰭總蝦紅素(TA)………………………………………………….55
4. 褪色………………………………………………………………….55
4.1皮膚β-胡蘿蔔素(BC)………………...…………………………....55
4.2皮膚雙酯化態蝦紅素(DA)………....……………………………..56
4.3皮膚單酯化態蝦紅素(MA)…………………...……………….......56
4.4皮膚游離態蝦紅素(FA)………………………...……………..…..56
4.5皮膚總蝦紅素(TA)……………………………...…………..……..56
4.6鰭β-胡蘿蔔素(BC)……………………………...…………….…..57
4.7鰭雙酯化態蝦紅素(DA)……………………...………….…...…...57
4.8鰭單酯化蝦紅素(MA)……………………...……………………...57
4.9鰭游離態蝦紅素(FA)………………………...……………….…...58
4.10鰭總蝦紅素(TA)…………………………………………….…....58
5.體色………………………………………...……..........................…..58
討論………………………………....................................................…..59
1.活存與成長………………………….……………………………..…59
2.呈色…………………………………...………………………...…….60
3.褪色…………………………………..…………………………...…..60
結論……………………………………………………………………..63
附錄A………………………………………………………………..…91
附錄B………………………………………………………..………....92
參考文獻………………………………………………………..………94






表目錄

第二章 飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色及褪色之影響
Table 1.The astaxanthin type comparison…………………………..…..29
Table 2. Table 1. Composition of experimental diets(mg/kg)………..…30
Table 3. The average and standard deviation (in parentheses) of survival rate (SUR)(%) and daily specific growth rate(SGR) in blood parrot(Cichlasoma var), fed diet supplemented with astaxanthin of 3 source and 3 concentrations for 54 weeks.…………..……31
Table 4. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of daily specific growth rate of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 3 sources at 3 concentrations of carotenoids for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for all fish for further 6 weeks.…32
Table 5. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of body weight of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 3 sources at 3 concentrations of carotenoids for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for all fish for further 6 weeks....33
Table 6. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin
in body surface (skin and fins mixed together) of fingerling
blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with
astaxanthin from 3 sources at 3 concentrations of carotenoids for
48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for all
fish for further 6 weeks..............................................................34
Table 7. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of β-carotene (BC) content in body surface (skin and fins mixed together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 3 sources at 3 concentrations of carotenoids for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for all fish for further 6 weeks…35
Table 8. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of diester astaxanthin (DA) content in body surface (skin and fins mixed together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 3 sources at 3 concentrations of carotenoids for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for all fish for further 6 weeks.....36
Table 9. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of monoester astaxanthin (MA) content in body surface (skin and fins mixed together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 3 sources at 3 concentrations of carotenoids for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for all fish for further 6 weeks…37
Table 10. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of free astaxanthin (FA) content in body surface (skin and fins mixed together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 3 sources at 3 concentrations of carotenoids for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for all fish for further 6 weeks..38


第三章 光照與飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色及褪色
之影響
Table 1. Composition of experimental diets(mg/kg)……………...….…64
Table 2. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of SUR content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) reared under natural illumination (L) or completely dark (D) and fed diets supplemented with 200 mg astaxanthin/kg (Y) or without (N) for 48 weeks. Only N-diet was fed for the further 6 weeks.………………………………...…..65
Table 3. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of SGR content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) reared under natural illumination (L) or completely dark (D) and fed diets supplemented with 200 mg astaxanthin/kg (Y) or without (N) for 48 weeks. Only N-diet was fed for the further 6 weeks.…………………...……………….66
Table 4. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of body weight content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) reared under natural illumination (L) or completely dark (D) and fed diets supplemented with 200 mg astaxanthin/kg (Y) or without (N) for 48 weeks. Only N-diet was fed for the further 6 weeks.………………………….……67
Table 5. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of β-carotene
(BC) content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of
fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) reared under natural illumination (L) or completely dark (D) and fed diets supplemented with 200 mg astaxanthin/kg (Y) or without (N) for 48 weeks. Only N-diet was fed for the further 6 weeks. ……..68
Table 6. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of diester astaxanthin (DA) content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) reared under natural illumination (L) or completely dark (D) and fed diets supplemented with 200 mg astaxanthin/kg (Y) or without (N) for 48 weeks. Only N-diet was fed for the further 6 weeks.……………………………………………………….....69
Table 7. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of monoester astaxanthin (MA) content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) reared under natural illumination (L) or completely dark (D) and fed diets supplemented with 200 mg astaxanthin/kg (Y) or without (N) for 48 weeks. Only N-diet was fed for the further 6 weeks………………………………………………………….70
Table 8. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of free astaxanthin (FA) content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) reared under natural illumination (L) or completely dark (D) and fed diets supplemented with 200 mg astaxanthin/kg (Y) or without (N) for 48 weeks. Only N-diet was fed for the further 6 weeks.……………………………………………………...….71
Table 9.The average and standard deviation (in parentheses) of specific growth rate(SGR) and survival rate (SUR)(%)in blood parrot (Cichlasoma var),fed diet supplemented with astaxanthin of 2 source and light and dark for 27 weeks.………………………72
Table 10. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of body weight of juvenile blood parrot(Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 2 sources at 200mg carotenoids /kg and a control (no carotenoids supplement) diet for 17 weeksand then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks.…………..………...73
Table 11.Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of β-carotene (BC) content in skin of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 2 sources at 200 mg carotenoids /kg and a control(nocarotenoids supplement)diet
for 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks……………………………............................................74
Table 12.Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of diester astaxanthin (DA) Content in skin of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 2 sources at 200 mg carotenoids /kg and a control (no carotenoids supplement) diet for 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks. ………….…75
Table 13. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of monoester astaxanthin (MA)content in skin of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 2 sources at 200 mg carotenoids /kg and a control (no carotenoids supplement) diet for 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks.………………………..…...76
Table 14.Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of free astaxanthin (FA) content in skin of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 2 sources at 200 mg carotenoids /kg and a control (no carotenoids supplement) diet for 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks.………………………….…………………………..…77
Table 15. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) ofβ-carotene (BC) content in fins of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 2 sources at 200 mg carotenoids /kg and a control (no carotenoids supplement) diet for 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks.…………………………………………………..……78
Table 16.Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of diester astaxanthin (DA) content in fins of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 2 sources at 200 mg carotenoids /kg and a control (no carotenoids supplement) diet for 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks…………………………..…79
Table 17.Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of monoester astaxanthin (MA) content in fins of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin from 2 sources at 200 mg carotenoids /kg and a control (no carotenoids supplement) diet for 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks……………………………..80
Table 18.Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of free astaxanthin (FA) content in fins of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented withastaxanthin from 2 sources at 200 mg carotenoids /kg and a control (no carotenoids supplement) diet for 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks……………………………..81





圖目錄

第二章 飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色及褪色之影響
Fig 1. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin
content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling
blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with 3
astaxanthin from 3 sources (S:synthetic astaxanthin , H:Haematococcus pluvialis , P:Phaffia rhodozyma ) for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for further 6 weeks……………………………………………………………39
Fig 2. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin
content inbody surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets containing 50, 100, and 200 mg carotenoid/ kg for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for further 6 weeks…………………..40
第三章 光照與飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色及褪色
之影響
Fig 1. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) reared under natural illumination (L) or completely dark (D) for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for further 6 weeks. ………………...…82
Fig 2. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin content in body surface (skin and fins mix together) of fingerling blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with 200 mg astaxanthin/kg (Y) or without (N) for 48 weeks and then blank diet (no carotenoids supplement) for urther 6 weeks. …...……...83
Fig 3. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin
content in skin of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with 2 astaxanthin (A-Astaxanthin;P- Phaffia rhodzyma) from 2 sources for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks…………………………..…84
Fig 4. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin content in skin of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed in light and dark regime for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks…………………..….……85


Fig 5. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin
content in fin of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed diets supplemented with 2 astaxanthin (A-Astaxanthin;P- Phaffia rhodzyma) from 2 sources for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks……………………….….…86
Fig 6. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of total astaxanthin content in fin of juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) fed in light and dark regime for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks…………………………………..87

圖版

第二章 飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色及褪色之影響
Plate 1.The diet-making process……………………………………..…41
Plate 2. The procedure to make a simple filter………………………....42
第三章 光照與飼糧蝦紅素對血鸚鵡的活存、成長、呈色及褪色
之影響
Plate 1. The sample photographs the method…………………..……….88
Plate2. The juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.) organization (skin and fin) freezes dryings………………………………………...89
Plate 3. The color changes of the juvenile blood parrot (Cichlasoma var.)
body skin for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 17 weeks and then fed only control diet for further 9 weeks…………...……………...……………..90













略語表

AX:蝦紅素(Astaxanthin)
BC:β-胡蘿蔔素(β-carotene)
CD:類胡蘿蔔素(Carotenoid)
DA:雙酯化蝦紅素(Diester astaxanthin)
MA:單酯化蝦紅素(Monoester astaxanthin)
FA:自由態蝦紅素 (Free astaxanthin)
TA:總蝦紅素(Total astaxanthin)
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