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研究生:陳弘毅
研究生(外文):Hung-Yi Chen
論文名稱:溫度、光週期與飼料中β-胡蘿蔔素含量對海膽生殖腺成熟與成長之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Temperature﹐Photoperiod and Dietary β- carotene Level on the Gonad Growth and Development of Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla.
指導教授:黃沂訓黃沂訓引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yii-Shing Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:溫度光週期胡蘿蔔素生殖腺海膽
外文關鍵詞:TemperaturePhotoperiodCaroteneGonadUrchin
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本實驗的目的在探討不同的溫度、光週期與飼料中β-胡蘿蔔素含量對白棘三列海膽(Tripneustes gratilla)各項體成長指數、生殖腺發育與生殖腺色澤的影響。
本實驗為2x3x3複因子實驗,共有三項變因﹕溫度(24℃與29℃) 、光週期(光照10小時、12小時和14小時)、飼料中β- carotene添加量(0mg/kg、60mg/kg、120mg/kg),共18個處理組,每組進行二重複。實驗用白棘三列海膽每日餵食量為體重0.5%之飼料,實驗為期120天。
實驗結果顯示在不同溫度下海膽之增重百分率(Percent weight gain﹐PWTG)、存活率(Survival)、飼料轉換係數(Feed conversion ratio﹐FCR)、蛋白質效率(Protein efficiency ratio﹐PER)與日成長率(Specific growth rate,SGR)有顯著差異,各數值皆於25℃時有較好的結果。25℃時增重百分率為38.16,存活率為95%,飼料轉換係數為2.25,蛋白質效率為1.98,日成長率為0.27,皆明顯優於29℃(增重百分率25.14%,存活率86.67%,飼料轉換係數3.26,蛋白質效率1.40,日成長率0.19)。溫度對於生殖腺色澤(Gonad color)、生殖腺指數(Gonad index﹐GSI)與生殖腺發育階段(Gonad development stage﹐GDS)則無顯著的影響。
光週期對生殖腺指數與生殖腺發育階段有顯著的影響。光照12小時下海膽生殖腺指數(GSI﹐24.02)最佳,光照14小時次之(GSI﹐23.50),光照10小時生殖腺指數(GSI﹐18.78)最低。光照12小時與14小時之生殖腺指數明顯高於光照10小時組,而兩個長光照組間並無顯著差異。生殖腺發育階段則在光照12小時下有最好的發育係數(GDS﹐2.45),明顯高於10小時(GDS﹐1.82)與14小時(GDS﹐2.00)光照組。除生殖腺指數與生殖腺發育階段外,光週期對其他數值並無顯著影響。
飼料中β- 胡蘿蔔素添加量對增重百分率、飼料轉換係數、日成長率與生殖腺色澤有顯著的影響。餵食添加60ppmβ-胡蘿蔔素的海膽有最佳的增重百分率(PWTG﹐37.44)、飼料轉換係數(FCR﹐2.12)、日成長率(SGR﹐0.26),明顯較0ppm(PWTG, 25.64%., FCR, 3.47., SGR, 0.19)與120ppm(PWTG, 32.28., FCR, 2.68., SGR, 0.23)組為佳。β- 胡蘿蔔素添加量對存活率、蛋白質效率、生殖腺指數與生殖腺發育階段無顯著影響。生殖腺色澤以β-胡蘿蔔素添加量120ppm的色澤指數(Gonad color﹐3.49)最佳,其次為60ppm(Gonad color﹐3.39),0ppm組最差(Gonad color﹐2.48);120ppm組與60ppm組色澤指數皆明顯高於0ppm組,但前兩者間並無顯著差異。
受到溫度與光週期交互作用的影響,海膽的體成長在25℃時優於29℃;而光週期則以光照12小時以下為佳,在溫度25℃,光照10小時狀況下有最好的體成長。但是當光照時間超過12小時,體成長有隨著光照時間增長而小幅提升的傾向。生殖腺色澤與生殖腺指數則在光照時間超過12小時狀況下,隨溫度與光照時間的提高有較佳的表現。
生殖腺發育階段受到溫度、光週期、飼料中β-胡蘿蔔素交互作用的影響,在25℃,光照12小時,β-胡蘿蔔素添加量60ppm狀況下生殖細胞發育最佳。
This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of temperature, photoperiod and dietary β-carotene level on somatic growth and gonad development of sea urchin? Tripneustes gratilla.
A 2x3x3 factorial feeding experiment was conducted with the two levels for temperatures at 25℃ and 29℃? three levels for photoperiods:10L/14D? 12L/12D, 14L/10D and the three dietary β-carotene levels:0mg/kg, 60mg/kg, 120mg/kg with duplicated treatment. Prepared diets were fed to the urchins once daily at a ration of 0.5% body wet weight for 120 days.
Temperature effect was observed on the sea urchins all with higher values held at 25℃:PWTG(38.16%)? survival rate(95%)? FCR(2.25)? PER(1.98)? SGR(0.27) than those held at 29℃(PWTG, 25.41%., survival rate, 86.67%., FCR, 3.26., PER, 1.40., SGR, 0.19). However, no temperature effect on the gonad color? GSI(Gonad index) and GDS(Gonad development stage) between urchins held in the two temperatures.
Photoperiod with light exposure shorter than 12hrs, 10L/14D(GSI, 18.78) exhibited significant lower GSI values than those groups exposed to longer day light conditions, 12L/12D(GSI, 24.03) and 14L/10D(GSI, 23.50). The 12L/12D urchin group had the highest GDS(2.45) than the two photoperiod groups, 10L/14D(GDS, 1.82) and 14L/10D(GDS, 2.00). However? there were no significant differences on PWTG, survival rate, FCR, PER, SGR, and gonad color among the urchins confined in the three levels of photoperiods.
Concentrations of dietary β-carotene also significantly affected the urchin’s PWTG, FCR, SGR and gonad color. Dietary β-carotene level at 60ppm resulted in values for the highest PWTG(37.44)? FCR(2.12)?and SGR(0.26)? than those urchins fed at 0ppm(PWTG, 25.64%., FCR, 3.47., SGR, 0.19) and 120ppm(PWTG, 32.28., FCR, 2.68., SGR, 0.23). Dietary β-carotene level had no effect on the survival rate, PER, GSI and GDS of urchins. Urchins received β-carotene level exceeded 60ppm exhibited significantly higher gonad color values, 120ppm(Gonad color, 3.49), 60ppm(Gonad color, 3.39) than those fed 0ppm(Gonad color, 2.48).
The interaction between temperature and photoperiod was well reflected on the WTG of urchins. Higher WTG value was observed on the urchins held at 25℃ then 29℃, and shorter day light exposure less then 12L exhibited better growth rate. However, the enhanced effect on the growth when urchins held at 25℃ and 10L/14D was observed. The other confliction of the two factors was 14L/10D exhibited better growth performance than the 12L/12D photoperiod group.
Interaction of the three factors occurred on the GDS of urchins which resulted in a best combination of 25℃, 12L/12D and 60ppm β-carotene treatment.
謝辭...........................Ⅰ
中文摘要.........................Ⅱ
英文摘要.........................Ⅳ
目錄...........................Ⅵ
表目錄..........................Ⅶ
圖目錄..........................Ⅸ
前言...........................1
文獻整理.........................3
材料方法.........................9
結果...........................19
討論...........................24
結論...........................30
參考文獻.........................31
表............................39
圖............................56
附錄...........................72
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