( 您好!臺灣時間:2022/05/21 10:07
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


研究生(外文):Wei-Ting Kuo
論文名稱(外文):Sources of persistent organic pollutants in marine organisms in the Northwest Pacific Ocean
指導教授(外文):Chin-Chang Hung
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:178
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
持久性有機污染物(Persistent organic pollutants, POPs)對環境及人類健康上有相當大的危害。在北太平洋的海洋生物已經遭到POPs的污染,而這些POPs可能是來自於歐亞國家,經由西風帶以及春季沙塵暴所傳輸到表層的大洋上,但直接的調查資料卻非常的少。因此,本研究在2007年春季亞洲沙塵暴期間,探討亞熱帶西北太平洋海域中浮游生物是否受到POPs的污染,並且研究可能的傳輸途徑。本研究分析在2007年黑潮上所取得浮游生物樣品,不同大小的浮游生物(>200 and >330 mm)中均發現含有POPs,且主要污染物為PCB-101、110、DDDs、DDEs、methoxychlor、heptachlor及HCHs,另外,根據2007年1月、3月、7月及10月在台灣北部所收集到的空氣濾紙樣品中所發現的POPs,與浮游動物體內所含的POPs污染物質相符合。此結果證實出經由大氣傳輸作用(如亞洲沙塵暴)與黑潮流動能使一些POPs從環太平洋區域傳輸到太平洋當中,並增加POPs進入海洋生物體當中而影響到海洋中的食物鏈。
Persistent organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides) can seriously influence environmental quality and human health. Aquatic life in the North Pacific is contaminated by organic pollutants which may be from Eurasia via the same mid-latitude westerlies that deriver nutrients to the surface ocean from Asian Dust Storm (ADS). At present, insufficient data exist to allow for the comprehensive delineation of the magnitude of this process. To investigate possible transport routes of organic pollutants to the North Pacific, we measured POPs in swimmers(>200 and 300 μm)in the Kuroshio Current during the ADS period in 2007. The major compounds detected were PCB-101, 110, DDDs, DDEs, methoxychlor, heptachlor, and HCHs. In addition, POPs compounds in atmospheric particulate matter(collected in January, March, July, and October 2007)in the Northern Taiwan were measured and these aerosol POPs are similar to those collected in swimmers. The results confirmed that pollutants from the Pacific Rim can be efficiently transported to the North Pacific Ocean by the Kuroshio Current, coupling with strong biological activity enhanced by the ADS event.
目 錄
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x

第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧
2.1 持久性有機污染物的簡介 3
2.2 持久性污染物對生物的影響 3
2.2.1 多氯聯苯 4
2.2.2 殺蟲劑 5
2.3持久性污染物在中國與台灣之分佈情形 7
2.3.1 中國大陸地區 7
2.3.2 台灣地區 10
2.3.3 世界其他地區 14
2.4 持久性污染物在大氣及生物體中的分佈 17

第三章 材料與方法
3.1 實驗藥品及器材 21
3.2 採樣地點與樣品儲存 23
3.3 樣品前處理 25
3.4 快速萃取系統(ASE) 25
3.5 純化層析管柱 26
3.6 GC-MSD 27
3.6.1 分析條件 27
3.6.2 偵測極限 28
3.6.3 定性及定量方法 28
3.7 方法的回收率 29
第四章 結果與討論
4.1 標準品分析SRM 1939a及1941b 32
4.2 浮游生物樣品之定性分析 35
4.3 浮游生物樣品中的POPs含量 38
4.4 脂肪含量與POPs含量的相關性 41
4.5 西北太平洋浮游生物之PCB及殺蟲劑的來源 42
4.6 空氣樣品的分析 46
4.7 POPs被浮游植物吸收或吸附之試驗 55
第五章 結論、未來展望與建議 59
參考文獻 61
AMAP(Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme), 2000. PCB in the Russian Federation: Inventory and Proposals for Priority Remedial Actions. Executive Summary. AMAP Report: 3. ISBN 82-7971-008-6. 27 pp.
AMAP, 1998. AMAP Assessment Report: Arctic Pollution Issues. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme(AMAP), Oslo, Norway, pp. xii+859.
Bailey, R., Barrie, L. A., Halsall, C. J., Fellin, P., Muir, D. C. G., 2000. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticides in the western Canadian Arctic: Evidence of transpacific transport. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 105: 11805-11811.
Bailey, R. E., 2001. Global hexachlorobenzene emissions. Chemosphere 43 (2): 167-182.
Bidleman, T. F., 1988. Atmospheric processes wet and dry deposition of organic- compounds are controlled by their vapor particle partitioning. Environmental Science & Technology 22 (4): 361-367.
Bidleman, T. F., Patton, G. W., Walla, M. D., Hargrave, B. T., Vass, W. P., Erickson, P., Fowler, B., Scott, V., and Gregor, D. J., 1989. Toxaphene and other organochlorines in Arctic ocean fauna: Evidence for atmospheric delivery. Arctic 42: 307-313.
Breivik, K., Sweetman, A., Pacyna, J. M., Jones, K. C., 2007. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners a mass balance approach. 3. An update. The Science of the Total Environment 377: 296-307.
Brunciak, P. A., Dachs, J., Franz, T. P., Gigliotti, C. L., Nelson, E. D., Turpin, B. J., Eisenreich, S. J., 2001a. Polychlorinated biphenyls and particulate organic/elemental carbon in the atmosphere of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Atmospheric Environment 35: 5663–5677.
Brunciak, P. A., Dachs, J., Gigliotti, C. L., Neslon, E. D., Eisenreich, S. J., 2001b. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and apparent degradation in coastal New Jersey. Atmospheric Environment 35(19): 3325–3339.
Chao, H. R., Wang, S. L., Lin, T. C., Chung, X. H., 2006. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in human milk from central Taiwan. Chemosphere 62: 1774–1785.
China, SEPA, 2003. Building the capacity of the Peoples Republic of China to implement the Stockholm convention on POPs and develop a National implementation plan GEF Project Brief (GF/CPR/02/010).
Chung, Y. S., Yoon, M. B., 1996. On the occurrence of yellow sand and atmospheric loadings. Atmospheric Environment 30: 2387–2397.
Cok, I., Bilgili, A., Ozdemir, M., Ozbek, H., Bilgili, N., Burgaz, S., 1997. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk from agricultural regions of Turkey, 1995-1996. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 59: 577-582.
Colborn, T., Vom-Saal, F.S., Soto, A.M., 1993. Developmental effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101: 378–384.
Dalvie, M. A., Myers, J. E., Thompson, M. L., Dyer, S., Robins, T. G., Omar, S., Riebow, J., Molekwa, J., Kruger, P., Millar, R., 2004. The hormonal effects of long-term DDT exposure on malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Environmental Research 96: 9–19.
de Voogt, P., Brinkman UATh., 1989. Production, properties and usage of polychlorinated biphenyls. In: Kimbrough RD, Jensen AA, editors. Halogenated biphenyls, terphenyls, naphtalenes, dibenzodioxins and related products. Topics in environmental health. ISBN 0-444-81029-3Elesevier, p. 3-45.
de Wit, C. A., Fisk, A., Hobbs, K., Muir, D., Kallenborn, R., Krahn, M., 2004. AMAP Assessment 2002: persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic. Oslo, Norway7 Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program; 310 pp.
Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Lucas, M., Blanchet, C., 2007. Risk and benefits from consuming salmon and trout: A Canadian perspective. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45: 1343–1348.
Doong, R. A., Lee, C. Y., Sun, Y. C., 1999. Dietary intake and residues of organochlorine pesticides in foods from Hsinchu, Taiwan. Journal of AOAC International 82: 677–682.
Doong, R. A., Lee, S. H., Lee, C. C., Sun, Y. C., Wu, S. C., 2008. Characterization and composition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in water and estuarine sediments from Gao-ping River, Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 57, 846–857.
Doong, R. A., Peng, C. K., Sun, Y. C., Liao, P. L., 2002a. Composition and distribution of organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Wu-Shi River Estuary, Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 45:246–253.
Doong, R. A., Sun, Y. C., Liao, P. L., Peng, C. K., Wu, S. C., 2002b. Distribution and fate of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from the selected rivers in Taiwan.Chemosphere 48:237–246.
Duce, R. A., Unni, C. K., Ray, B. J., Prospero, J. M., Merrill, J. T., 1980. Long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust from Asia to the Tropical North Pacific: temporal variability. Science 209: 1522–1524.
Falandysz, J., Yamashita, N., Tanabe, S., Tatsukawa, R., 1992 Composition of PCB isomers and congeners in technical Chlorofen formulation produced in Poland. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 47: 129 –136.
Fan, X. B., Okada, K., Nimura, N., Kai, K., Arao, K., Shi, G. Y., Qin, Y., Mitsuta, Y., 1996. Mineral particles collected in China and Japan during the same Asian dust-storm event. Atmospheric Environment. 30: 347–351.
Fenner, K., Scheringer, M., MacLeod, M., Matthies, M., McKone, T., Stroebe, M., Beyer, A., Bonnell, M., Le Gall, A.C., Klasmeier, J., Mackay, D., Van De Meent, D., Pennington, D., Scharenberg, B., Suzuki, N., Wania, F., 2005. Comparing estimates of persistence and long-range transport potential among multimedia models. Environmental Science & Technology 39 (7): 1932-1942.
Fiedler H., 1997. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): use and environmental releases. Proceedings of the Subregional Meeting on Identification and Assessment of Releases of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). St. Petersburg, Russian Federation: 1–4 Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals 1997: 81 –103.
Fisk, A. T., Stern, G. A., Hobson K. A., Strachan, W. J., Loewen, M. D., and Norstrom R. J., 2001. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) a small, herbivorous, Arctic marine zooplankton(Calanus hyperboreus): trends from April to July and the influence of lipids and trophic transfer. Marine Pollution Bulletin 43: 1-6.
Gong, G. C., Chang, J., Wen, Y. H., 1999. Estimation of annual primary production in the Kuroshio waters northeast of Taiwan using a photosynthesis-irradiance model. Deep-Sea Research I 46: 93-108.
Hamilton, M. C., Hites, R. A., Schwager, S. J., Foran, J. A., Knuth, B. A., Carpenter, D. O., 2005. Lipid composition and contaminants in farmed and wild salmon. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 8622– 8629.
Han, B. C., Jeng, W. L., Hung, T. C., Ling, Y. C., Shieh, M. J. Chien, L. C., 2000. Estimation of metal and organochlorine pesticide exposures and potential health threat by consumption of oysters in Taiwan. Environmental Pollution 109: 147–156.
Hargrave, B. T., Harding, G. C., Vass, W. P., Erickson, P. E., Fowler, B. R., and Scott, V., 1992. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Arctic Ocean food web. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22: 41-54.
Harner, T., Kylin, H., Bidleman, T. F., Halsall, C. J., Strachan, W. M. J., Barrie, L. A., 1998. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Arctic air. Environmental Science & Technology. 32: 3257– 65.
Harner, T., Shoeib, M., Kozma, M., Gobas, F., Li, S. M., 2005. Hexachlorocyclohexanes and endosulfans in urban, rural, and high altitude air samples in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia: Evidence for trans-Pacific transport. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 724-731.
Huang, D. J., Chen, H. C., 2004. Effects of Chlordane and lindane on testosterone and vitellogenin levels in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). International Journal of Toxicology. 232: 91–96.
Huang, X., Hites, R. A., Foran, J. A., Hamilton, C., Knuth, B. A., Schwager, S. J., Carpenter, D. O., 2006. Consumption advisories for salmon based on risk of cancer and noncancer health effects. Environmental Research 101, 263–274.
Hung, C. C., Gong, G. C., Jiann, K. T., Yeager, K. M., Santschi, P. H., Wade, T. L., Sericano, J. L., 2006. Relationship between carbonaceous materials and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediments of the Danshui River and adjacent coastal areas, Taiwan. Chemosphere 65: 1452-1461.
Hung, C. C., Gong, G. C., Chen, H. Y., Hsieh, H. L., Santschi, P. H., Wade, T. L., Sericano, J. L., 2007. Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas, Taiwan. Environmental Pollution,148: 546-554.
Husar, R. B., Tratt, D. M., Schichtel, B. A., Falke, S. R., Li, F., Jaffe, D., Gasso, S., Gill, T., Laulainen, N. S., Lu, F., Reheis, M. C., Chun, Y., Westphal, D., Holben, B. N., Gueymard, C., McKendry, I., Kuring, N., Feldman, G. C., McClain, C., Frouin, R. J., Merrill, J., DuBois, D., Vignola, F., Murayama, T., Nickovic, S., Wilson, W. E., Sassen, K., Sugimoto, N., Malm, W. C., 2001. Asian dust events of April 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research. 106: 18316–18330.
Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Sakai, N., Nishimura, A., Tatsukawa, R., 1994. Geographical distribution of persistent organochlorines in air, water and sediments from Asia and Oceania, and their implications for global redistribution from lower latitudes. Environmental Pollution 85: 15-33.
Jiann, K. T., Wen, L. S., Santschi, P. H., 2005. Trace metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) partitioning, affinities and removal in the Danshuei River estuary, a macro-tidal, temporally anoxic estuary in Taiwan. Marine Chemistry 96: 293-313.
Johnson, L. L., Ylitalo, G. M., Sloan, C. A., Anulacion, B. F., Kagley, A. N., Arkoosh, M. R., Lundrigan, T. A., Larson, K., Siipola, M., Collier, T. K., 2007. Persistent organic pollutants in outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon from the Lower Columbia Estuary, USA. Science of the Total Environment 374: 342–366.
Joint Canada–Philippines Planning Committee., June 4–8, 1995. Meeting Background Report for the International Experts Meeting on Persistent. Organic Pollutants: Towards Global Action, Vancouver, Canada.
Kannan, K., Tanabe, S., Tatsukawa, R., 1995. Geographical distribution and accumulation features of organochlorine insecticide residues in fish in tropical Asia and Oceania. Environmental Science & Technology 29: 2673–83.
Kunisue, T., Watanabe, M., Someya, M., Monirith, I., Minh, T. B., Subramanian, A., Tana, T. S., Viet, P. H., Prudente, M., Tanabe, S., 2002. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and organochlorine insecticides in human breast milk collected from Asian developing countries: risk assessment for infants. Organohalogen Compounds 58: 285-288.
Kunisue, T., Someya, M., Kayama, F., Jin, Y., Tanabe, S., 2004a. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, China. Environmental Pollution. 131: 381-392.
Kunisue, T., Someya, M.,Watanabe, M., Toyota, T., Kuroda, Y., Nagayama, J., Tanabe, S., 2004b. Contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Ehime prefecture. Environmental Science 17: 37-48 (in Japanese).
Lammel, G., Ghim, Y. S., Grados, A., Gao, H., Huhnerfuss, H., Lohmann, R., 2007. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in air in China and over the Yellow Sea. Atmospheric Environment 41: 452–464
Lerche, D., van de Plassche, E., Schwegler, A., 2002. Selecting chemical substances for the UN-ECE POP protocol. Chemosphere 47: 617–630.
Li, Y. F., Bidleman, T. F., 2003a. Correlation between global emissions of ahexachlorocyclohexane and its concentrations in the Arctic Air. Journal of environmental Information 1: 52– 7.
Li, Y. F., Bidleman, T. F., 2003b. Usage and emissions of organochlorine pesticides. Canadian Arctic contaminants assessment report II.
Li, Y. F., Bidleman, T. F., Barrie, L. A., McConnell, L. L., 1998a. Global hexachlorocyclohexane use trends and their impact on the arctic atmospheric environment. Geophysical Research Letters, 25: 39–41.
Li, Y. F., Cai, D. J., Singh, A., 1998b. Hexachlorocyclohexane use trends in China and their impact on the environment. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 35: 688–97.
Li, Y. F., Cai D. J., Singh A., 1998c. Historical DDT use trends in China and usage data gridding with 1/4° by 1/6° longitude/latitude resolution. Advances in Environmental Research 2(4): 497–506.
Li, J., Zhang, G., Guo, L., Xu, W., Li, X., Celine, S. L. Ding, L. A., and Wang, T., 2007. Organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of Guangzhou and Hong Kong: Regional sources and long-range atmospheric transport, Atmospheric Environment 41: 3889-3903.
Li, Y. F., Li, D. C., 2004 Global emission inventories for selected organochlorine pesticides. Internal Report, Meteorogical Service of Canada. Toronto, Canada7 Environment Canada.
Li, Y. F., Macdonald, R. W., 2005. Sources and pathways of selected organochlorine pesticides to the Arctic and the effect of pathway divergence on HCH trends in biota: a review. The Science of the Total Environment 342: 87-106.
Li, Y. F., Zhulidov, J. A. V., Roberts, R. D., Korotova, L. G., 2004. Hexachlorocyclohexane use in the Former Soviet Union. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48: 10– 5.
Li, Y. F., 1999a. Global technical hexachlorocyclohexane usage and its contamination consequences in the environment: from 1948–1997. The Science of the Total Environment 232: 121–58.
Li, Z. Y., 1999b. Trends and strategies of global control over persistent organic pollutants. Modern Chemical Industry, 7:5–8 (in Chinese).
Li, G. C., 2000, Agricultural chemicals regulation and risk assessment in Taiwan IUPAC-TACTRI/COA International Workshop on Pesticides 2000 Proceedings, pp. 42–48.
Li, G. C., Wu, L. J., Flanagan, M., 1983. The survey of ogranochlorine pesticide residues in breast milk from Taiwan. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 25: 191–203 (in Chinese).
Lin, S., Hsieh, I. I., 1999. Occurrences of green oyster and heavy metals contaminant levels in the Sien-San Area, Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38: 960-965.
Lin, T. H., 2001. Long-range transport of yellow sand to Taiwan in spring 2000: observed evidence and simulation. Atmospheric Environment 35: 5873–5882.
Ling, Y. C., Huang, I. P., 1995. Multiresidue-matrix solid-phase dispersion method for determining 16 organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fish. Chromatography 40: 259–266.
Ling, Y. C., Teng, H. C., Cartwright, C., 1999. Supercritical fluid extraction and clean-up of organochlorine pesticides in Chinese herbal medicine. Journal of Chromatography 835: 145–157.
Loganathan, B. G., Tanabe, S., Goto, M., Tatsukawa, R., 1989. Temporal trends of organochlorine residues in lizard goby, Rhinogobius flumineus, from the river Nagaragawa, Japan. Environmental Pollution 62: 237–51.
Louie, P. K. K., Sin, D. W. M., 2003. Apreliminary investigation of persistent organic pollutants in ambient air in Hong Kong. Chemosphere 52: 1397-1403.
Manodori, L., Gambaro, A., Moret, I., Capodaglio, G., Cescon, P., 2007. Air–sea gaseous exchange of PCB at the Venice lagoon (Italy). Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 1634–1644.
Minh, N. H., Someya, M., Minh, T. B., Kunisue, T., Watanabe, M., Tanabe, S., Viet, P. H., Tuyen, B. C., 2004. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh city, Vietnam: contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants. Environmental Pollution 129: 431–441.
MoEJ—Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, 2005. Chemicals in the environment. Report on environmental survey and monitoring of chemicals in FY2004, 168 pp. /http://www.env.go.jp/chemie/en/kurohon/index.htmlS.
Natalie, M. M., Baker, A. R., Bergametti, G., Brooks, N., Duce, R. A., Jickells, T. D., Kubilary, N., Prospero, J. M. and Tegen, I. 2005. Atmospheric global dust cycle and iron inputs to the ocean. Global biogeochemistry cycles, 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002402.
Newsome, W. H., Ryan, J. J., 1999. Toxaphene and other chlorinated compounds in human milk from northern and southern Canada: a comparison. Chemosphere 39: 519-526.
Offenberg, J. H., Baker, J. E., 1999. Influence of Baltimore’s urban atmosphere on organic contaminants over the northern Chesapeake Bay. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 49: 959–965.
Paumgartten, F. J. R., Cruz, C. M., Chahoud, I., Palavinskas, R., Mathar, W., 2000. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCB, and other organochlorine compounds in human milk from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Environmental Research 83: 293-297.
Qiu, X., Zhu, T., Li, J., Pan, H., Li, O., Miao, G., Gong, J., 2004. Organochlorine pesticides in the air around the Taihu Lake, China. Environmental Science and Technology 38: 1368-1374.
Salata, G. G., Wade, T. L., Sericano, J. L., Davis, J. W., Brooks, J. M., 1995. Analysis of Gulf of Mexico bottlenose dolphins for organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Environmental Pollution 88: 167–75.
Stroebe, M., Scheringer, M., Hungerbuhler, K., 2004. Measures of overall persistence and the temporal remote state. Environmental Science & Technology 38 (21): 5665-5673.
Stroebe, M., Scheringer, M., Hungerbuhler, K., 2006. Effects of multi-media partitioning of chemicals on Junge’s variability-lifetime relationship. The Science of the Total Environment 367 (2-3) : 888-898.
Sudaryanto, A., Kunisue, T., Kajiwara, N., Iwata, H., Adibroto, T. A., Hartono, P., Tanabe, S., 2006. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk. Environmental Pollution 139: 107-117.
Sun, F., Wong, S. S., Li, G. C., Chen, S. N., 2006. A preliminary assessment of consumer_s exposure to pesticide residues in fisheries products. Chemosphere 62: 674–680.
Taiwan Agrochemical Industry Association, 1982. Domestic manufacturers production and sales of pesticides 1962– 1981. Taipei, Taiwan (in Chinese).
Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, 1997. Analysis of Tamshui river aquatic environment. Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration Report, Taipei.
Tanabe, S., 1991. Fate of Toxic-Chemicals in the Tropics. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22: 259-260.
Tanabe, S., Kunisue, T., 2007. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries. Environmental Pollution 146: 400-413.
Tatsukawa, R., 1976. PCB pollution of the Japanese environment. In: Higuchi, K., editor. PCB poisoning and pollution. ISBN 0- 12-347850-2 Kodansha Ltd. Tokyo: Academic Press.p. 147 –179.
Thurman, H. V., 1993. Essentials of Oceanography, 4th ed.
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)., 2002. Central and North East Asia regional report, regionally based assessment of PTS, UNEP/GEF.
UNIDO(United Nations Industrial Development Organization)., 2003. Building the capacity of the People's Republic of China to implement the Stockholm Convention on POPs and develop a National Implementation Plan, GEF- 1412, UNIDO/GEF/WB.
USEPA(US Environmental Protection Agency)., 1975. DDT:Areview of scientific and economic aspects of the decision to ban its use as a pesticide. Washington DC: EPA 540/1-75-022.
Var, F., Narita, Y., Tanaka, S., 2000. The concentration, trend and seasonal variation of metals in the atmosphere in 16 Japanese cities shown by the results of National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) from 1974 to 1996. Atmospheric Environment 34: 2755–2770.
Voldner, E. C., Li, Y. F., 1995. Global usage of selected persistent organochlorines. The Science of the Total Environment 160/161, 201-210.
Waliszewski, S. M., Aguirre, A. A., Infanzon, R. M., Silva, C. S., Siliceo, J., 2001. Organochlorine pesticide levels in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, and milk from inhabitants of Veracruz, Mexico. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40: 432-438.
Wang, L. G., Zhao, Z. Z. H., Jiang, X., Wu, J. S., Martens, D., 2005. Assessment of pesticide residues in two arable soils from the semi-arid and subtropical regions of China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 109: 317–328.
WB (World Bank)., 2005. Demonstration of alternatives to chlordane and mirex in termite control, GEF-2359, Document of World Bank.
WHO., 1984. Endosulfan. International programme on chemical safety. Envirornmental Health Criteria, vol. 40. Geneva, Switzerland7 World Health Organization.
Wong, M. H., Poon, B. H. T., 2003. Sources, fates and effects of persistent organic pollutants in China, with emphasis on the Pearl River Delta. In: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. In: Fiedler, H. (Ed.), Part O Persistent Organic Pollutants, vol. 3. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 355–369.
Xu, K. C., 1992. Environmental quality survey and marine pollution monitoring in Chinese Coastal areas. Marine Environmetal Science 11(3): 12-17 (in Chinese).
Yuan, Y. C., Yuan, Y. K., Chen, H. C., 2004. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides in marine fishes from coast of Taoyuan in Taiwan. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 73: 306–311.
Zhang, H., Eisenreich, S. J., Franz, T. R., Baker, J. E., Offenberg, J. H., 1999. Evidence for increased gaseous PCB fluxes to Lake Michigan from Chicago. Environmental Science and Technology 33: 2129–2137.
Zhao, H. X., 1999. Pesticide safety stressed: nontoxic chemical promoted. China Daily 19, 5880.
彭家宏,1970。環境污染的嚴重性 以DDT為例。科學月刊第三期。
Rachel Carson, 1962。
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top