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研究生:傅科瑜
研究生(外文):Fu.KoYu
論文名稱:整合數量與運輸折扣之機率性存貨模型
論文名稱(外文):Stochastic inventory model with quantity and freight discounts integration
指導教授:張宏吉張宏吉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung-Chi Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺中技術學院
系所名稱:事業經營研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:數量折扣運輸折扣連續盤查存貨模型
外文關鍵詞:quantity discountsfreight discountscontinuous review inventory model
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在供應鏈管理的概念下,整合運輸與存貨控制問題是相當值得探究的議題。以往的存貨管理模式中,若考慮到運輸成本時,通常假設運輸成本由供應商管理,當成單位成本的一部分;或是視為固定訂購成本的一部分,且與運送批量大小無關,使得運輸成本的影響無法完整的反應在管理決策上。本文針對隨機需求環境,考量缺貨時為完全欠撥的情況,建構整合數量折扣與運輸折扣之連續盤查存貨模型,並且建立各種折扣組合類型的求解程序,以求取全年期望總成本為最小之最佳存貨策略。此外,本研究分別在前置時間內需求量服從常態分配與均勻分配之假設下,探討模型之最佳解,並藉由數值範例說明求解的結果、總成本節省的績效,與各參數值變動對訂購量、再訂購點及期望總成本的影響。研究的結果顯示,本文所提出的模型與獨立決策的模型相較,皆具有一定的成本節省效果,其中又以雙全單位折扣型最為顯著。
In supply chain management, transportation and inventory problems are very important. In the traditional inventory models, transportation cost is implicitly assumed being controlled by the supplier, so it is treated as a part of unit cost or included in the ordering cost, which is independent of delivery lot size. Thus, the effect of transportation cost could not reflect on management strategy completely. This study considers the continuous review inventory system with backorders, where various mixed types of freight discounts (all-weight/incremental weight) and quantity discounts (all-units/increment) are incorporated. Also, two special distributions, normal and uniform, are adopted to formulate the stochastic demand during lead time. For each discount policies, we develop solution procedures to find the optimal order quantity and reorder point such that the expected total annual cost is minimized. Furthermore, the results of proposed models are illustrated by numerical experiments, and sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effect of problem parameters on the optimal policies. Comparing with the results of independent decision model where transportation cost is considered separately, the cost savings can be obtained using the proposed models in this study, and the case of dual all-units discounts has the great effect on cost savings.
目錄
目錄 I
圖目錄 III
表目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 4
1.3 文獻回顧 5
1.3.1 連續盤查存貨模型 5
1.3.2 數量折扣與運輸折扣 6
1.4 研究架構 9
第二章 模型建構 11
2.1 基本假設與符號說明 12
2.1.1 基本假設 12
2.1.2 符號定義與說明 13
2.1.3 折扣表 15
2.2 雙增量折扣下之模型建立與求解 17
2.3 求解 19
2.4 其他折扣組合下之求解程序 22
2.4.1 雙全單位折扣 23
2.4.2 混合型折扣 24
第三章 特殊情境之模型與數值範例分析 26
3.1 前置時間內需求量為常態分配的模型 27
3.2 前置時間內需求量為均勻分配的模型 28
3.3 常態分配模型的數值範例 29
3.3.1 求解結果 30
3.3.2 與獨立決策之比較 36
3.3.3 敏感度分析 37
3.4 均勻分配模型的數值範例 44
3.4.1 求解結果 44
3.4.2 與獨立決策之比較 48
3.4.3 敏感度分析 49
第四章 結論 52
4.1 研究結果 52
4.2 未來研究方向 54
參考文獻 56
附錄A 61
附錄B 62


圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程圖 10
圖2-1 交易流程圖 13
圖2-2 反覆求解步驟圖 21
圖2-3 雙增量折扣之求解步驟圖 22
圖2-4 雙全單位折扣之求解步驟圖 24
圖2-5 混合型折扣之求解步驟圖 25
圖3-1 雙增量折扣之期望總成本曲線 32
圖3-2 雙全單位折扣之期望總成本曲線 33
圖3-3 增量數量折扣/全重量運費折扣之期望總成本曲線 34
圖3-4 全部數量折扣/增量運費折扣之期望總成本曲線 36
圖3-5 雙增量折扣之期望總成本曲線 45
圖3-6 雙全單位折扣之期望總成本曲線 46
圖3-7 增量數量折扣/全重量運費折扣之期望總成本曲線 47
圖3-8 全部數量折扣/增量運費折扣之期望總成本曲線 48


表目錄
表1-1 包含運輸折扣/數量折扣之存貨模型 9
表2-1 數量折扣表 15
表2-2 運費折扣表(重量) 16
表2-3 運費折扣表(個數) 16
表2-4 整合折扣表 17
表2-5 數量與運費折扣組合 23
表3-1 常態分配參數設定表 29
表3-2 數量折扣表 30
表3-3 運費折扣表 30
表3-4 整合折扣表 30
表3-5 各例題所表示的折扣組合表 31
表3-6 例題1的求解結果 31
表3-7 例題2的求解結果 33
表3-8 例題3的求解結果 34
表3-9 例題4的求解結果 35
表3-10 各例題總成本節省百分比 37
表3-11 運輸成本的影響 38
表3-12 商品成本的影響 39
表3-13 在庫持有成本的影響 40
表3-14 前置時間內之需求標準差的影響 41
表3-15 訂購成本的影響 42
表3-16 缺貨成本的影響 43
表3-17 均勻分配參數設定表 44
表3-18 例題5的求解結果 45
表3-19 例題6的求解結果 46
表3-20 例題7的求解結果 47
表3-21 例題8的求解結果 48
表3-22 各例題總成本節省百分比 49
表3-23均勻分配模式之敏感度分析 49
參考文獻
中文部分
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2.林清河(民91)。物料管理。台北市:華泰文化事業公司。
3.林鴻志(民92),含服務水準限制式及訂購成本與前置時間有關之經濟訂購量模型,淡江大學管理科學學系碩士論文。
4.顏憶茹、張淳智(民94)。物流管理原理、方法與實例。台北縣:前程文化事業有限公司。
5.蘇雄義、陳培光、黃明顯審訂(民94)。供應鏈經營管理。台北市:智勝文化事業有限公司。
英文部份
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