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研究生:羅子仁
研究生(外文):Tzu-Jen Lo
論文名稱:綜整彈性波與無線感測器網路之定位系統研發
論文名稱(外文):Research and Development of Elastic Wave Based Indoor Localization Coupled with Wireless Sensor Network
指導教授:吳文中
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:工程科學及海洋工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:無線感測器網路彈性波室內定位交互相關函數
外文關鍵詞:wireless sensor networkelastic wavelocalizationcross correlation.
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本研究以暫態彈性波量測技術為基礎,配合本研究團隊以IEEE802.1.5.4為基礎開發出的無線感測器網路平台,建立出室內定位系統之雛形,系統架構為利用無線感測器模組外接訊號擷取電路結合暫態彈性波感測器,藉由臨界電壓觸發判別訊號到達時間,將訊號到達時間以無線射頻收發器將資訊傳回電腦,在電腦端上使用訊號到達時間差演算法推估未知點位置。以臨界電壓觸發的判斷機制較為簡易,相對在判別上會有較高不確定性,造成時間差不小的漂移量,這樣的情形可以利用交互相關函數來彌補,因此在本文後段將暫時利用示波器量測訊號,初步驗證交互交關函數的可行性。
This thesis demonstrates the possibility of using elastics wave source for localization on bare floor with a in-house developed wireless sensor network based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Multiple piezoelectric surface vertical displacement sensors are used to sensing the time-of-arrival time and estimated for the source location of the wave source. Simple triggering level for estimation of time-of-arrival are adopted in the experiments, without complex calculation or digital signal processing. However, major timing errors of time-of-arrival were found contributed from this simple estimation method. A more accurate time-of-arrival estimation with cross correlation algorithm can further reducing timing errors are successfully developed but requires more computation resources and consumes more overall power which is not yet implement on the capability limited sensor node processors at this moment. The results illustrate that cross correlation scheme would be a feasible solution to get better estimation of localization with wireless sensor network in the future.
誌謝 i
摘要 iii
ABSTRACT iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xii
第1章 緒論.. 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 章節介紹 3
第2章 測距技術與定位系統 4
2.1 定位的概念 4
2.2 測距原則 6
2.2.1 偵測訊號抵達角度(Angle of Arrival, AOA) 6
2.2.2 偵測訊號強度(Radio Signal Strength, RSS) 7
2.2.3 偵測訊號抵達時間(Time of Arrival, ToA) 9
2.2.4 偵測訊號抵達時間差(Time Difference of Arrival, TDOA) 13
2.3 定位系統 17
第3章 無線感測器網路 20
3.1 ZigBee與Bluetooth無線通訊技術 20
3.2 無線感測器網路系統平台與網路拓樸 24
3.2.1 TinyOS概觀 24
3.2.2 網路拓樸 26
3.2.3 點對點網路拓樸 26
3.2.4 星型網路拓樸 28
3.2.5 階層式網路拓樸 29
3.3 無線感測器硬體簡介 30
3.3.1 Simple Node 31
3.3.2 Super Node 32
3.3.3 通用閘道器 33
第4章 系統架構與分析 35
4.1 系統概觀 35
4.2 表面垂直位移感測器 37
4.3 訊號擷取模組 39
4.3.1 前置放大與濾波電路 41
4.4 室內樓板量測 44
4.4.1 頻散曲線 57
4.5 Simple Node工作模式 59
4.5.1 時間同步 60
第5章 實驗結果與討論 69
5.1 時間差量測 69
5.2 系統整合測試 75
5.2.1 小結 78
5.3 交互相關函數 78
5.3.1 以交互相關函數重複定位實驗 81
第6章 結論與未來展望 86
6.1 結論 86
6.2 未來展望 86
參考文獻........ 88
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