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研究生:劉劍輝
研究生(外文):Chien-Hui Liou
論文名稱:大腦功能性影像於靜坐生理調節現象之研究
論文名稱(外文):Brain Functional Mapping on Physiological Regulating Phenomena during Meditation Exercise
指導教授:李嗣涔李嗣涔引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:功能性磁振造影血氧準據訊號大腦及神經影像靜坐中國正宗靜坐默運祖炁聽其自然運化
外文關鍵詞:Functional MRI (fMRI)Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signalBrain and neuroimagingMeditationChinese Original Quiet Sitting (COQS)Invitation of Primordial Qi (IPQ)Allow its Natural Workings (ANW)QiCh’i
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
以不同的方式進行大腦功能的探索無疑是一件有趣而且極有意義的工作,而靜坐正是一項可以提升身體健康的特殊精神操作,然而截至目前為止、其內部的機制或是完整的神經生理解釋仍尚待建立。本研究應用功能性磁振造影(fMRI)技術針對中國正宗靜坐(COQS)進行深入研究,此靜坐法分成兩階段:第一階段為默運祖炁(默念口訣並接收外界炁能,約數分鐘),第二階段為「聽其自然運化」(長時間的靜坐放空,不假絲毫人為意識,聽任內部氣機自然運化),由於此兩階段為完全不同的靜坐操作且各有其意義,因此分別設計實驗進行探討。另外、為了獲得初步的生理資訊,在正式fMRI實驗前先進行四項一般性生理訊號之量測,包括:SAO2 (%), ETCO2 (%), Heart Rate (BPM) 以及 Respiration Rate (BPM),腦電圖(EEG)信號也作了初步量測。

共有十六位受測者參與第一階段的靜坐實驗,大腦數個區域呈現統計性意義(p<0.005)之正向活化反應(positive activation),包括:vACC, declive, middle occipital gyrus, corpora quadrigemina, thalamus, pineal body, fusiform gyrus, hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, precuneus, precentral gyrus, insula, middle temporal gyrus, culmen 以及 cingulate gyrus。這些大腦區域顯示靜坐與生理調節間之高度相關性,另外、在相同的分析條件下,並沒有任何大腦區域呈現負向活化反應(negative activation)。

另外、共有十七位受測者參與第二階段的靜坐實驗,大腦數個區域呈現統計性意義(p<0.05)之正向及負向活化反應,主要的負向活化反應(negative activation)區域包括:dACC, superior frontal gyrus, caudate body, amygdale 以及 superior temporal gyrus,正向活化反應(negative activation)區域則包括:vACC, declive, culmen, thalamus 以及 hypothalamus。此外、考量靜坐本身之複雜性,其中之反應型態可能隨著受測者生理及心理狀態而呈現時間上之反應區差異,吾人假設靜坐之大腦反應可能呈現時間效應(temporal effect)上之差距,在進行數據分析過程中,亦將第二階段再細分為三個時段觀察其反應區,結果發現各時段中大腦之反應區域隨時間之變化而略有不同。另外再針對下視丘(hypothalamus) 進行時間效應之分析,發現數種不同之BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) 信號形式,此結果初步證實前述之假設,亦即靜坐之大腦反應可能呈現時間效應之差異,暗示由下視丘掌控之內分泌調節或是整體內在之生理調節程序,可能由於受測者不同的生理與心理狀態而在靜坐中不同的時段中進行。

本研究之實驗結果呈現靜坐過程中大腦之反應區域,並顯現出相當之生理調節意義,循此結果並進行更深入的研究,可能建立靜坐改善生理現象之機制以及系統性解釋。另外、吾人在第一階段靜坐實驗中發現松果體呈現活化,唾液之褪黑激素分析當可作為一項間接及定性上之證據,真正導致松果體反應之理由尚需進一步探討。

針對第一階段及第二階段靜坐實驗結果所建立之「大腦反應區與生理意義概要圖」可提供不同靜坐階段中大腦反應區與其中所可能產生生理影響之初步綜覽,該概要圖同時也呈現出靜坐過程中可能產生之生理性調節現象及意義。雖然本研究提出相當有意義之結果,但是受限於研究之技術及專業,有關靜坐生理之更詳細機制及內涵尚須更深入之探討以解開其中之奧秘。
It is interesting and meaningful to explore the brain function in various aspects. Meditation is a special mental operation which might promote body health. As yet, the internal mechanism and complete neurological interpretation still remain to be established. In this study, I chose Chinese Original Quiet Sitting (COQS) to be investigated by fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) technique. Also, as COQS processes two different parts: a short period of silent recitation of religious mantra and mental imagination of receiving spiritual energy (named “Invitation of Primordial Qi”: IPQ), and a long period of relaxation with no further action (named “Allow its Natural Workings”: ANW), these two states were detailed checked in my research separately. Besides, in order to get some original information, four kinds of ordinary physiological signals were detected, which were: SAO2 (%), ETCO2 (%), Heart Rate (BPM) and Respiration Rate (BPM). The EEG signals were also detected.

Sixteen subjects were reported in COQS-IPQ study. Certain brain regions showed activation with statistical significance (p<0.005), which were: vACC, declive, middle occipital gyrus, corpora quadrigemina, thalamus, pineal body, fusiform gyrus, hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, precuneus, precentral gyrus, insula, middle temporal gyrus, culmen and cingulate gyrus. These brain regions implied profound correlation between meditation and physiological adjustments. With the same analytical condition, no negative activation regions were found.

Seventeen subjects participated in COQS-ANW study. Certain brain regions showed negative and positive activation with statistical significance (p<0.05). The main negative activation regions are: dACC, superior frontal gyrus, caudate body, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus. The positive activation regions are: vACC, declive, culmen, thalamus and hypothalamus. As meditation is such a complicated mental operation depending upon the physical and mental circumstances of each subject, I supposed that it might exhibit difference of temporal activity among meditation process. The temporal effects were also studied. Within the analytic process, the ANW state was divided into three periods to check the activation patterns. Special results had been found. It also showed several BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal patterns among the hypothalamus activation which concluded the hypothesis that their exhibited differences of temporal activity during meditation process. These results implied that the internal hormone adjustment might occur in different period during meditation process depending upon the physical and mental circumstances of each subject.

The experimental results exhibited meaningful brain regions which supplied profound implications to the understanding of neural regulating activities. These may also impel further studies to the establishment of systematic interpretations for the meditation exercise. Since COQS-IPQ stage showed pineal activation, the salivary melatonin study might serve as an indirect and quantitative evidence of the activation of pineal body. The elaborate reason which causes pineal activation still need more study.

The schematic diagrams of the COQS-IPQ and COQS-ANW operations were provided which offered the interpretations of the brain organ and the subsequent physiological affections during the meditation process. These results exhibited that neural regulating processes might perform during the meditation period. Although the experimental results offered some valuable information, as limited by the investigating technique and academic disciplines, the detail interpretations or mechanism and the correlation between meditation and human life through certain organs still need further studies.
Chapter 1 Introduction - Meditation and the Human Life
1.1 Motivation - Meditation on Body, Mind and Spiri……………………………1
1.2 Objectives and Outline of this Research…………………………………………2

Chapter 2 Material and Methods
2.1 Meditation and the Brain Research…………………………………………4
2.1.1 The Meditation Study………………………4
2.1.2 Instruments for Brain Research Adopted in Meditation Study…………………10
2.2 Principles of Functional MRI ………………………………………………14
2.2.1 Physiological Reactions during Brain Activation………………………14
2.2.2 Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Contrast………………………16
2.2.3 Temporal Properties of BOLD Signal …………………………17
2.3 Paradigm Design and Analysis Methods………………………………………18
2.3.1 Paradigm Design …………………………………………………………18
2.3.2 Within Subject Analysis……………………………19
2.3.3 Between Subject Analysis ………………………………………21
2.3.4 Model Free Analysis……………………………………………………22
2.4 fMRI Experiment Design……………………………………………25
2.4.1 The Meditation Style……………………………25
2.4.2 Subject Agreement and Paradigm Design………………………………25
2.4.3. Equipment and Data Acquisition……………………………………26
2.4.4. Data Analysis and Image Performance……………………………26
2.5 Salivary Melatonin and Urine Serotonin Detection…………………………29
2.5.1 Introduction to the Melatonin and Serotonin Analysis ………………….29
2.5.2 Salivary Melatonin Analysis………………………29
2.5.3. Urine Serotonin Analysis………………………………………31

Chapter 3 Physiological Signal Detection and EEG Experiment
3.1 Ordinarily Physiological Signal Detection……………………………………34
3.2 EEG Experiment……………………39

Chapter 4 Experimental Results of fMRI and Melatonin Studies
4.1 The COQS-IPQ fMRI Results …………………………………………………48
4.1.1 Subjects and Instrument Information…………………………………………48
4.1.2 The Analytic Results of COQS-IPQ by SPM…………………………………49
4.1.3 The Analytic Results of COQS-IPQ by FACT of the Pineal Activation ……49
4.2 The COQS-ANW fMRI Results ………………………………………………56
4.2.1 Subjects and Instrument Information……………………………………56
4.2.2 The Analytic Results of COQS-ANW by SPM…………………………56
4.2.3 The Analytic Results of COQS-ANW by FACT on Hypothalamus as the Activity Study in Temporal Scale………………………………………58
4.3 The Melatonin and Serotonin Results…………………………………………63
4.3.1 Subject Information and Self-Evaluations………………………………63
4.3.2 The Analytic Results of the Salivary Melatonin……………………….....63
4.3.3 The Analytic Results of the Urine Serotonin……………………………64
4.3.4 Overall Aspects of Melatonin Analysis Results…………………………65

Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusions
5.1 Discussion ……………………………………………………………………71
5.1.1 The Ordinary Physiological Signals and EEG Detections………………71
5.1.2 The Activation Regions Compared with Other Researchers……………72
5.1.3 The Interpretation of Neural Regulating during Meditation Process……73
5.2 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………81
5.3 Future Works ……………………………………………………………82

References …………………………………………………………………………83

Appendix An interpretation of the activation of pineal body during meditation process…………………………………………………92
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