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研究生:楊忠政
研究生(外文):Chong-cheng Yang
論文名稱:感電重大職業災害之致災因素
論文名稱(外文):Contributing factors of work-related electrical fatalities
指導教授:紀佳芬紀佳芬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi , C.-F.
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:工業管理系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:感電重大職災災害原因危害類型預防對策
外文關鍵詞:Electrical FatalityAccident CauseAccident PatternPrevention Measure
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依據我國重大職業災害統計資料顯示,每年感電職災死亡者約50-80人,排名第二,僅次於墜落,約佔全部職業災害之14.6%,與國外相較,感電似有偏高之情形。為瞭解感電重大職災之發生情境,本研究蒐集我國85年至91年全產業工作場所之423件感電重大職災案例,發展致災因素之分類系統,作為資料分析工具,以辨識重大災害之致災因子及高風險族群,並建構更為精準有效之感電預防策略。
本文共分為二個部分,第一部分為感電重大職災統計分析及溫溼度之影響,針對前述423件感電災害案例之行業別、季節、電壓、傷害性質等變數進行分析,先利用Cramer’s V係數分析各變數間之相關性,再進一步以Phi係數分析變數內各水準之關連性。依分析結果,行業別以營造業感電死亡最多,計255人,佔60%;另外也發現夏季期間(191,45%)及低壓電(282,66.7%)發生感電最多,且「季節與電壓」呈現顯著相關,經進一步分析得知「低壓電與夏季」亦有顯著關連性。為瞭解氣候對於感電職災死亡人數之影響,因此再以複迴歸分析探討每月平均溫度及相對溼度對於感電死亡人數之影響,發現月份平均溫度與感電職災死亡人數可能有線性關係,其模式為:Y=0.0455X2 - 1.4096X + 12.886,R2=0.8638;再就高壓電及低壓電分別分析,發現月份平均溫度與低壓電感電職災死亡人數可能有線性關係,其模式為:Y=0.0593X2-2.0233X +17.668,R2=0.9342,顯示溫度有可能會影響低壓電之感電職災。
第二部份為營造業感電重大職災統計分析及預防對策探討,針對前述營造業255件感電職災個案之性別、年齡、公司規模、工作經驗、作業別、媒介物、災害原因、危害類型等變數進行分析,同樣以Cramer’s V及Phi係數分析,以探討感電災害之各項影響變數。分析結果發現主要的罹災者以男性(254,99.6%)、年齡小於34歲(148,58%)、多受僱於未滿30人之小公司(226,88.6%)、工作經驗不足1年(182,71.4%)。在危害類型部份,分別以接觸漏電或損壞之設備(101,39.6%)、接觸帶電之設備(53,20.8%)、勞工直接接觸高壓電力線(41,16.1%)發生較多。作業別部份,從事非電氣作業者(153,60%)約為電氣作業者之1.5倍(97,38%)。媒介物部份,以車輛與機械設備(60,23.5%)、電動手工具及器具(49,19.2%)、帶電體(44,17.3%)、高壓電力線(41,16.1%)發生較多。
另外,各危害類型之災害原因分析,發現「勞工直接接觸高壓電力線」之相關災害原因為未使用適當防護具與防護裝備、未完成接地、未完成斷電程序、未保持安全距離、不安全作業行為;「伸臂型車輛接觸高壓電力線」之原因為未保持安全距離、不安全作業行為、不安全環境;「傳導性物體接觸高壓電力線」之原因為未保持安全距離;「接觸帶電之設備」之原因為接觸帶電的設備、未使用適當防護具與防護裝備、未完成斷電程序、不安全作業行為;「接觸漏電或損壞之設備」之原因為損壞的機具設備、不安全作業行為、缺乏安全裝置、不安全環境。
最後,針對各種危害類型,建構「作業別-媒介物-危害類型」模式,並就各危害類型之發生原因,發展感電預防對策,包括安全作業行為、保護、接地、絕緣及安全裝置等。此外,亦應強化感電職災預防制度、修訂相關法令、加強安全衛生教育訓練及宣導、落實法令執行等,以有效預防感電職災。
In Taiwan, approximately 50-80 workers died from electrical fatalities each year which accounted for 14.6% of all occupational fatalities. The average annual incidence rate-0.91 per 100,000 workers was relatively high as compared to 0.4 in U.S. and 0.49 in Australia indicating that occupational electrical fatal injury is a significant problem.
In-depth accident analysis is an important source of information for deriving potential risk factors and developing effective prevention strategies. The first part of the dissertation analyzed 423 work-related single fatalities from the years 1996 to 2002 in terms of industry, month, and voltage for these accidents. The result indicated that majority of the victims were construction workers (255, 60%) and died from low voltage electricity, almost half of the fatalities took place in summer (45%). Fatality rate was found to probably have a relationship with the monthly average temperature.
The second part of the dissertation focused on the analysis of 255 electrical fatalities of construction industry. Each electrical fatality was analyzed in terms of individual factors (age, gender, experience of the victim), task factors (performing tasks), environmental factors (wet condition and cramped space), management factors (company size measured by number of workers), source of injury, and causes for these accidents. The result indicated most victims were male (254, 99.6%), less than 34 years old (148, 58%), worked for companies with less than 30 workers (226, 89%), and had less than 1 year of work experience (182, 71%). Besides, These electrocution accidents were divided into five accident patterns: (1) direct workers contact with an energized power line (41, 16%), (2) boomed vehicle contact with an energized power line (36, 14%), (3) conductive equipment contact with an energized power line (19, 8%), (4) direct workers contact with an energized equipment (53, 21%), (5) improperly installed or damaged equipment (101, 40%), and other unclassified (5, 2%) to identify contributing factors for each. According to the significant associations between accident cause and accident pattern Improper use of PPE, and improper grounding, failure to maintain safe distance, failure to de-energize, and poor work practices can contribute to worker’s contact with energized power line accidents. Failure to maintain safe distance was the majority cause for boomed vehicle and conductive equipment contact with energized power line accidents. Direct workers contact with energized equipment was most commonly caused by improper use of PPE, contacts with live parts, poor work practices, and failure to de-energize. Improperly installed or damaged equipment accident was most likely be caused by defective tools and equipments, poor work practices, lack of effective safety devices, and unsafe environments.
Contributing factors and prevention measures (safe work practices, guarding, grounding, insulation, and electrical protective devices) for each accident patterns were derived based on the identified common scenarios. The result from the analysis could lead to more effective safety policy, system, training, and compliance with safety regulation in order to reduce the electrical fatality.
摘要 1
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究範圍與限制 3
第四節 研究架構 5
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 職業災害分析模式探討 7
第二節 行業別 12
第三節 年齡、公司規模 12
第四節 作業別 13
第五節 媒介物 14
第六節 災害原因 18
第七節 危害類型 21
第八節 其他變數 21
第三章 研究方法 23
第一節 資料來源與變數定義 23
第二節 標準化發生比 (SMR) 32
第三節 Pearson相關及Cramer’s V係數 33
第四節 Phi係數 34
第五節 複迴歸分析及相關分析 34
第六節 Multi-Linear Event-Sequencing模式 35
第四章 全產業感電重大職災統計分析及溫溼度之影響 37
第一節 各變數之頻次分析及SMR分析 37
第二節 各變數間Cramer’s V 分析及變數內各水準Phi分析 40
4.2.1 各變數間Cramer’s V 分析 40
4.2.2 變數內各水準Phi分析 41
第三節 每月溫濕度及感電職災死亡人數之迴歸分析 44
4.3.1 月份平均溫溼度對感電職災死亡人數之線性關係 44
4.3.2 月份平均溫度對不同電壓之感電職災死亡人數之線性關係 46
第四節 小結 48
第五章 營造業感電重大職災統計分析及預防對策 49
第一節 各變數之頻次分析及SMR分析 49
5.1.1 類型一:勞工直接接觸高壓電力線 56
5.1.2 類型二:伸臂型車輛接觸高壓電力線 57
5.1.3 類型三:傳導性物體接觸高壓電力線 58
5.1.4 類型四:接觸帶電之設備 58
5.1.5 類型五:接觸漏電或損壞之設備 60
第二節 各變數間Pearson及Cramer’s V 分析 61
第三節 變數內各水準之Phi分析 63
5.3.1 危害類型與災害原因之分析 63
5.3.2 危害類型與作業別、媒介物、公司規模之分析 67
5.3.3 媒介物、作業別與公司規模間之分析 70
第四節 營造業感電職災之「作業別-媒介物-危害類型」模式 72
第五節 營造業感電職災原因分析與防災對策探討 74
5.5.1 類型一:勞工直接接觸高壓電力線 74
5.5.2 類型二:伸臂型車輛接觸高壓電力線 80
5.5.3 類型三:傳導性物體接觸高壓電力線 85
5.5.4 類型四:接觸帶電之設備 86
5.5.5 類型五:接觸漏電或損壞之設備 89
第六節 小結 93
第六章 結論與建議 95
第一節 結論 95
第二節 建議 99
參考文獻 108
附錄1 87-91年每月之平均溫度、相對溼度及感電職災死亡人數 114
附錄2 「爬錯電桿」之人為失誤案例探討 115
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