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研究生:古拿旺
研究生(外文):Setiyo Gunawan
論文名稱:從大豆除臭油中分離和純化角鯊烯與植物油固醇酯
論文名稱(外文):ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF SQUALENE AND FATTY ACID STERYL ESTERS FROM SOYBEAN OIL DEODORIZER DISTILLATE
指導教授:朱義旭
指導教授(外文):Yi-Hsu Ju
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:鯊 烯 與 植 物 固 醇 酯
外文關鍵詞:Fatty acid steryl estersmodified soxhlet extractionmodified silica gel column chromatographysoybean oil deodorizer distillatesqualenewater-acetone extraction
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Depending on conditions in the refining process, soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) in Taiwan typically contains about 41-45% free fatty acids (FFAs) and 10-20% triacylglycerols (TAGs). Bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, free phytosterols, fatty acid steryl esters (FASEs) and squalene also make up a significant portion of SODD. The objective of this research is to develop economically viable techniques for the separation and purification of squalene and fatty acid steryl esters from SODD. The quantitative analysis of the separation processes and the feasibility of this method to isolate the constituent compounds were investigated. A modified soxhlet extraction and modified silica gel column chromatography were employed to isolate and purify squalene from SODD. Then, FASEs in high purity and recovery could be further achieved by combination of water-acetone extraction. Here, a modified soxhlet extraction was employed for the efficient separation of FASEs and squalene into non polar lipid fraction (NPLF) and tocopherols, free phytosterols, TAGs, and FFAs into polar lipid fraction (PLF). The effectiveness of this separation was confirmed in subsequent experiments, carried out under the same conditions except with different SODD compositions. The modified soxhlet extraction could obtain NPLF which eliminating tocopherols, free phytosterols, FFAs, and acylglcerols from SODD by 87.99 – 95.68%, 97.26 – 99.76%, 76.13 – 82.11%, and 91.03 – 97.25%, respectively. By combining a modified soxhlet extraction with a modified silica gel column chromatography, squalene with high purity (95.90%) and high recovery (93.09%) was obtained from SODD with an initial squalene content of 1.83%. The design of modified silica gel column chromatography can be used either as soxhlet extraction or column chromatography by setting the valve. Modified silica gel column chromatography possesses advantages over classical one because it significantly reduces the amount of solvent and time required to achieve the same degree of separation. In addition, Water-acetone extraction was employed sequentially in this study to obtain FASEs with three different purities, i.e. 96.55% (20.89 % total recovery), 86.82% (50.57% total recovery), and 70.78% (11.99% total recovery) from SODD.
COVER
RECOMMENDATION LETTER I
APPROVAL LETTER II
CHINESE ABSTRACT III
ENGLISH ABSTRACT IV
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS V
TABLE OF CONTENTS VI
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS IX
LIST OF FIGURES XII
LIST OF TABLES XIV

CHAPTER
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Soybean Oil Deodorization Distillate 1
1.2 Free Fatty Acids 6
1.3 Squalene 7
1.4 Tocopherols / Tocotrienols 8
1.5 Phytosterols / Phytostanols 11
2 LITERATURE REVIEWS
2.1 Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Deodorizer Distillate 18
2.1.1 Chemical Process 20
2.1.2 Enzymatic Process 22
2.1.3 Physical Process 25
2.2 Bioactive Compounds Analysis in Deodorizer Distillate 29
2.2.1 Indirect Analysis 29
2.2.2 Direct Analysis 30
2.3 Research Aims 34
3 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials 36
3.2 Equipments 37
3.3 Analysis 37
3.3.1 Determination of FFAs contents in SODD 37
3.3.2 Analysis by TLC and HT-GC 38
3.3.3 Analysis by GCMS 40
3.3.4 Nitrogen Adsorption-Desorption Isotherm Analysis 41
3.2.2 Analysis of FTIR 41
3.4 Methodology 41
3.4.1 Modified Soxhlet Extraction 43
3.4.2 Silica Gel Column Chromatography 44
3.4.2.1 Classical Silica Gel Column Chromatography 44
3.4.2.2 Modified Silica Gel Column Chromatography 45
3.4.3 Binary Solvent Extraction 47
3.4.3.1 Repeated Solvent Extraction 47
3.4.3.2 Combination of Solvent Extraction 49
3.4.4 Statistical Analysis 51
IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
IV.1 Modified Soxhlet Extraction 52
IV.1.1 Effects of Silica Gel to SODD Mass Ratio 54
IV.1.2 Effects of Extraction Temperature 56
IV.1.3 Reuseability of Silica Gel 58
IV.2 Silica Gel Column Chromatography 62
IV.2.1 Classical Silica Gel Column Chromatography 64
IV.2.2 Modified Silica Gel Column Chromatography 65
IV.2.2 .1 Packing Process 65
IV.2.2 .2 Isolation of Aliphatic, Steroidal, and
Sesquiterpenes Hydrocarbons 66
IV.2.2 .3 Isolation and Purification of Squalene 71
IV.2.2 .4 Isolation of FASEs 72
IV.3 Binary Solvent Extraction 77
IV.3.1 Repeated Solvent Extraction 78
IV.3.2 Combination of Solvent Extraction 81
V CONCLUSIONS 83
VI FUTURE PROSPECTS 85
REFERENCES 86
APPENDIX A CALIBRATION METHOD
APPENDIX B STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
CURRICULUM VITAE
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