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研究生:黃世新
研究生(外文):Shih-Hsin Huang
論文名稱:新式四相位壓控振盪器及注入鎖定除頻器之設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of Novel Quadrature Voltage-Controlled-Oscillator and Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers
指導教授:莊敏宏張勝良
指導教授(外文):M.-H. JuangSheng-Lyang Jang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:壓控振盪器四相位壓控振盪器除頻器
外文關鍵詞:VCOQVCODivider
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本論文先描述一個新型四相位壓控振盪器,在1V之外加供應電壓下,此四相位電路其輸出之相位雜訊在距離5.3GHz載波頻率1MHz處所量測之結果可達-120.20dBc/Hz且其直流消耗功率8mW;在控制電壓由0V調至1V時可調變頻率由5.306GHz至5.75GHz,其調諧範圍為444MHz且計算出來的FOM是-185.66。
最後,我們呈現利用直接注入鎖定技術之除頻器,除頻器的自由振盪頻率為6GHz,在注入信號為0dBm時,該除頻器即可鎖定由7.3GHz至14.4GHz之輸入信號範圍,換言之,該除頻器具有7.1GHz (65.4%)之超寬鎖定範圍。另一個注入鎖定除三除頻器以三級環形振盪器為基礎,當供應電壓由1V至1.6V時此電路可調變頻率由4.96GHz至1.97GHz,在注入信號為0dBm 時,鎖定範圍為15.2GHz至5.85GHz,該除頻器具有9.35GHz (88.8%)之寬鎖定範圍。
Firstly, this thesis presents a new quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO). The LC-tank QVCO consists of two first-harmonic injection-locked oscillators (ILOs). The outputs of one ILO are injected to the gates of the tail transistors on the other ILO and vice versa so as to force the two ILOs operate in quadrature. The proposed CMOS QVCO has been implemented with the TSMC 0.18-μm CMOS technology. At the supply voltage of 1.0 V, the total power consumption is 8.0 mW. The free-running frequency of QVCO is tunable from 5.306 GHz to 5.75 GHz as the tuning voltage is varied from 0 V to 1 V. The measured phase noise at 1 MHz offset is -120.2dBc/Hz at the oscillation frequency of 5.3 GHz and the figure of merit (FOM) of this proposed QVCO is about -185.66dBc/Hz.
A new wide locking-range injection-locked frequency divider using a standard 0.18μm CMOS 1P6M process is also presented in this thesis. The ILFD is based on a differential VCO with two embedded injection MOSFETs for coupling external signal to the resonators. The measurement results show that at the supply voltage of 1.5V, the divider free-running frequency is 6 GHz, and at the incident power of 0 dBm the locking range is about 7.1 GHz (65.4%), from the incident frequency 7.3 GHz to 14.4 GHz. Finally, a new divide-by-3 ILFD circuit based on three-stage ring-oscillator has been proposed and implemented in the 0.35μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The free-running oscillation frequency of the ILFD is tunable from 4.96 GHz to 1.97 GHz, and at the incident power of 0 dBm the operation locking range is about 9.35 GHz (88.8%), from the incident frequency 15.2 to 5.85 GHz when the supply voltage is tuned from 1 V to 1.6 V.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF FIGURES VI
LIST OF TABLES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND 1
1.2 THESIS ORGANIZATION 3
CHAPTER TWO OVERVIEWS OF VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS 4
2.1 INTRODUCTION 4
2.2 THE OSCILLATOR THEORY 5
2.3 SORTS OF OSCILLATORS 9
2.3.1 RESONATORLESS OSCILLATORS 9
I. RING OSCILLATOR 9
II. RELAXATION OSCILLATOR 11
2.3.2 LC-TANK OSCILLATORS 12
I. COLPITTS AND HARTLEY OSCILLATORS 12
II. NEGATIVE-GM OSCILLATORS 13
2.4 DESIGN CONCEPTS OF VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS 14
2.4.1 VCO CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS 15
2.5 PARALLEL RLC TANK 23
2.5.1 QUALITY FACTOR 24
2.5.2 INDUCTOR AND TRANSFORMER 27
I. INDUCTOR 27
II. TRANSFORMER 36
A. PHYSICAL LAYOUTS OF TRANSFORMERS 38
B. COMPACT MODELS OF TRANSFORMERS 42
2.5.3 CAPACITORS AND VARACTORS 44
I. CAPACITORS 44
II. VARACITORS 47
A. THE INVERSION-MODE (I-MODE) MOS CAPACITOR 51
B. THE ACCUMULATION-MODE (A-MODE) MOS CAPACITOR 52
2.5.4 RESISTORS 53
CHAPTER THREE A LOW-POWER CMOS DIFFERENTIAL VCO 55
3.1 INTRODUCTION 55
3.2 THE ADVANTAGE OF TRANSFORMER-BASED LC-TANK VCOS 56
3.3 A LOW-POWER CMOS DIFFERENTIAL VCO 57
3.4 MEASUREMENT RESULTS 60
CHAPTER FOUR A NOVEL CMOS QUADRATURE VCO 64
4.1 INTRODUCTION 64
4.2 TRADITIONAL QVCO CIRCUIT DESIGN 65
4.3 PROPOSED QVCO CIRCUIT DESIGN 66
4.4 MEASUREMENT RESULTS 71
CHAPTER FIVE DESIGN OF INJECTION LOCKED FREQUENCY DIVIDER 75
5.1 INTRODUCTION 75
5.2 CLASSICAL INJECTION-LOCKED CIRCUIT DESIGN 76
5.3 LC-TANK INJECTION-LOCKED FREQUENCY DIVIDER 77
5.3.1 PROPOSED INJECTION-LOCKED CIRCUIT DESIGN 77
5.3.2 MEASUREMENT RESULTS 81
5.4 A WIDE-LOCKING RANGE SIGE BICOMS ILFD 85
5.4.1 PROPOSED INJECTION-LOCKED CIRCUIT DESIGN 85
5.4.2 MEASUREMENT RESULTS 88
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION 93
REFERENCES 95
PUBLICATIONS 99
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