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研究生:許宏彬
研究生(外文):Hung-pin Hsu
論文名稱:含銻及氮之III-V族化合物薄膜及量子井結構光學特性研究
論文名稱(外文):Optical Characterization of Antimony and/or Nitrogen Containing III-V Thin Films and Multiple Quantum Well Structures
指導教授:黃鶯聲
指導教授(外文):Ying-sheng Huang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:砷銻氮化鎵表面光電壓光譜壓電調制光激發光譜光子調制氮磷化銦鎵砷銻化鎵砷化銦鎵(銻)量子井非接觸式電場調制
外文關鍵詞:photoreflectancecontactless electroreflectancepiezoreflectancesurface photovoltage spectroscopyphotoluminescenceGaAsSbNInGaPNGaAsSbInGaAs(Sb)quantum well
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本論文利用光子調制、非接觸式電場調制、光子穿透、表面光電壓光譜、波長調制表面光電壓光譜及光激發光譜研究含Sb及N化合物GaAsSbN及InGaPN薄膜、GaAsSb/GaAs、InGaAs(Sb)/GaAs量子井結構之光學特性。主要內容包含:
利用PL及PR量測技術來探討GaAs0.909Sb0.07N0.021的熱退火光學特性,從低溫的PL光譜顯示,熱退火處理可改善樣品發光效率。從PR可觀察到因受應力所造成的重電洞及輕電洞分裂量減少,此乃因熱退火溫度增高可使薄膜中所受應力減小。另外也觀察到退火後能隙藍移,此乃因熱退火可使薄膜的成份均勻性及N的次鄰接原子改變。
使用表面光電壓光譜量測不同N成份的In0.176Ga0.824P1-yNy (y = 1.5% - 8.7%)成長於GaP基板薄膜,因為加入N後使材料從間接能隙轉變為直接能隙半導體,從實驗結果中顯示,利用一個二次方程式來描述含N化合物的能隙縮減僅在含少量N成份時適用。同時我們也利用極化的PzR及PR光譜研究成長於GaAs基板的In0.54Ga0.46P1-xNx (y = 0% - 2%)薄膜,探討其光學非對稱性質,另外在N成份高於0.5%的樣品中,可觀測來自InGaPN/GaAs介面中第二型的躍遷訊號。
在GaAsSb/GaAs量子井實驗中,從PL結果顯示,成長過程中隨著用Sb界面保護的時間越長,其PL的強度增強,半高寬減小,從量子井結構躍遷及經由界面保護後樣品於比GaAs能隙稍低所多出來的訊號及其可能原因也加以探討。於成長中控制不同Sb/V流量比所成長InGaAs(Sb)/GaAs量子井中,從CER結果得到量子井躍遷訊號紅移及PL發光位置紅移及半高寬增大,此原因為通入Sb後造成Sb摻入InGaAs/GaAs量子井所造成。在上述兩組含Sb量子井結構的低溫PL光譜均有觀測到S-shape的情形,此原因為加入Sb後所造成的載子localization或是在量子井介面的成份微擾效應。
最後,材料能隙相關躍遷及量子井中躍遷隨溫度變化的結果,利用Varshni及Bose-Einstein兩方程式來得到其相關的溫度參數並加以討論。
The optical properties of antimony and/or nitrogen containing alloys (GaAsSbN and InGaPN) and multiple quantum wells (MQWs) structures (GaAsSb/GaAs, InGaAs(Sb)/GaAs) were characterized by photoreflectance (PR), contactless electroreflectance (CER), piezoreflectance (PzR), phototransmittance (PT), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), wavelength modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy (WMSPS), and photoluminescence (PL).
Thermal annealing effects of a GaAs0.909Sb0.07N0.021 film grown on GaAs have been characterized. PL measurements show the evolution of luminescence feature upon thermal annealing treatment. The conduction to heavy-hole (HH) band and conduction to light-hole (LH) band transitions originated from the strained induced valence band splitting in GaAs0.909Sb0.07N0.021 layer have been observed by the PR measurements. The near band edge transition energies have reduced splitting of HH and LH bands with rising annealing temperature. Besides, near band edge transition energies blue-shifted with rising annealing temperature are attributed to both the improvement of composition homogeneity and the configuration changes of second-nearest-neighboring atoms to the N atoms.
In0.176Ga0.824P1-yNy (y = 1.5% - 8.7%) alloys grown on GaP substrate were characterized by SPS. The SPS also revealed that a transition from indirect to direct band gap is taking place for the N-incorporated samples and the quadratic correction for the band gap bowing is only applicable for low nitrogen containing samples.
Polarized PzR and PR spectra were employed to study band alignment in In0.54Ga0.46P1-yNy/GaAs (0% y 2%) heterostructures. The features near the band edge of InGaPN show strong polarization dependence, indicating the existence of some degree of ordering of these samples. The type II band alignment at the In0.54Ga0.46P1-yNy is concluded for the alloys with nitrogen content y larger than 0.5% based on the appearance of additional features below the band edge of GaAs. These features are attributed to the spatially indirect type II transitions in the vicinity of interface region between InGaPN and GaAs.
The effects of growth interruptions on the interfaces of GaAsSb/GaAs MQWs were studied. The PL spectra show peak location redshifted, luminescence intensity increased and narrowing of full width at half maximum (FWHM) with increasing Sb exposure interruption time. The features originated from different regions of the samples including interband transitions of MQWs, interfaces and GaAs were observed and identified through a detailed comparison of the obtained spectra and theoretical calculation. An additional feature has also been observed below the GaAs region in Sb exposure treated samples and the probable origin of this feature has been discussed.
The InGaAs(Sb)/GaAs double quantum wells (DQWs) structures grown with Sb assistance under different Sb/V ratios have been investigated. The interband transition energies were determined via a lineshape fit to the CER spectra and exhibied a slight redshift with the incorporation of Sb. The PL spectra show redshifted peak location with decreasing intensity and broadened FWHM with increasing Sb/V ratio during growth. The anomalous temperature dependence of PL spectra for Sb-containing QWs has been attributed to carrier localization effect resulted from the presence of Sb clusters and/or fluctuations in Sb composition at the QW interfaces.
The near band edge transition energies in thin film alloys and interband transition energies in MQWs are determined and their temperature dependences are analyzed by Varshni and Bose-Einstein expressions. The parameters that describe the temperature variations of the transition energies are evaluated and discussed.
Contents
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………I
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………V
Contents………………………………………………………………………………VI
Symbols and Abbreviations……………………………………………………… VIII
List of Figures…...………………………………………………………………IX
List of Tables…….………………………………………………………………XIII

Chapter 1 Introduction….…………………………………………………………1
1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Outline of dissertation…………………………………………………5

Chapter 2 Techniques and theoretical analysis………………………………9
2.1 Sample description………………………………………………………9
2.2 Experimental techniques and setups…………………………………14
2.2.1 Modulation spectroscopy techniques……………………………………14
2.2.2 Surface photovoltage and wavelength modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy………………………………………………………………………17
2.2.3 Photoluminescence………………………………………………………19
2.3 Theoretical analysis model………………………………………20
2.3.1 Modulation spectroscopy lineshape…………………………………20
2.3.2 Temperature dependence characteristics…………………………23

Chapter 3 Photoluminescence and photoreflectance study of annealing effects on GaAs0.909Sb0.07N0.021 layer grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. ………………………………………………………………………………………29
3.1 Low temperature photoluminescence………………………………29
3.2 Temperature dependent photoreflectance………………………30
3.3 Summary………………………………………………………………34

Chapter 4 Surface photovoltage spectroscopy characterization of InGaPN alloys grown on GaP substrates……………………………………………………………………40
4.1 Room temperature surface phototvoltage spectroscopy…………………40
4.2 Temperature dependent surface photovoltage spectroscopy……………43
4.3 Summary……………………………………………………………………………45


Chapter 5 Evidence of type-II band alignment at the ordered InGaPN to GaAs heterointerface…………………………………………………………………52
5.1 Ansiotropic properties of InGaPN………………………………52
5.2 Type-II band alignment at InGaPN/GaAs heterointerface……54
5.3 Summary…………………………………………………………………57

Chapter 6 Photoluminescence and modulation spectroscopy study of the effects of growth interruptions on the interfaces of GaAsSb/GaAs multiple quantum wells………………………………………………………………………………65
6.1 Temperature dependent photoluminescence……………………65
6.2 Phototransmittance and wavelength modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy……………………………………………………………………67
6.3 contactless electroreflectance spectroscopy………………71
6.4 Summary………………………………………………………………74

Chapter 7 Contactless electroreflectance and photoluminescence study of highly strained InGaAs(Sb) double quantum wells………………………………84
7.1 Temperature dependent photoluminescence……………………84
7.2 Temperature dependent contactless eletroreflectance……87
7.3 Summary………………………………………………………………89

Chapter 8 Conclusion……………………………………………………………99
References…………………………………………………………………………103
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………114
Publications ……………………………………………………………………115
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