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研究生:楊勝名
研究生(外文):YANG SHENG MING
論文名稱:低電壓直接注入鎖定除頻器之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Low Voltage Direct Injection Frequency Dividers
指導教授:張勝良
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Lyang Jang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:直接注入鎖定除頻器
外文關鍵詞:Direct Injection Frequency Divider
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此論文提出了三個直接注入鎖定除頻器,第一個是一個低電壓直接注入鎖定除三除頻器,第二是一個低電壓直接注入鎖定除二除頻器,最後是一個低電壓四相位直接注入鎖定除二除頻器,前者使用了標準台積電0.35微米製程去實現,而後二者則使用0.18微米CMOS製程去實現。
在低電壓直接注入鎖定除三除頻器中,此電路包含由兩個N型金氧半電晶體交錯耦合對為中心所組成的壓控振盪器以及兩個用來注入訊號的N型金氧半電晶體並聯共振腔電感所組成。量測結果顯示在注入訊號0 dBm時,其鎖定範圍是從14.45 GHz 到 15.68 GHz,而其消耗功率在供應電壓1.0 V之下只有4.0 mW,其調變頻率則可從 4.83 GHz 到 5.21 GHz。
在低電壓直接注入鎖定除二除頻器裡,此除頻器包含由兩個NMOS交錯耦合對為中心所組成的壓控振盪器以及一個注入NMOS而成。量測結果顯示在注入訊號0 dBm時,其鎖定範圍是從4.1 GHz 到 11.2 GHz,而其消耗功率在供應電壓0.8 V之下只有10.3 mW,其調變頻率則可從 3.6 GHz 到 4.17 GHz。
在低電壓四相位直接注入鎖定除二除頻器中,此電路由一個新式5.35GHz 四相位壓控震盪器以及兩個用來注入訊號的N型金氧半電晶體開關並聯共振腔所組成,量測結果顯示在注入訊號0 dBm時,其鎖定範圍是從8.23 GHz 到 13.27 GHz,而其消耗功率在供應電壓0.8 V之下只有5.72 mW,其調變頻率則可從 5.24. GHz 到 5.55 GHz。
This thesis presents three injection locked frequency dividers, the first one is a Divide by 3 ILFD, the second one is a Divide by 2 ILFD and the final one is a Quadrature Divide by 2 ILFD ,first is implemented by using standard TSMC 0.35um and the latter two are implemented by using 0.18um CMOS process respectively.
In the Low Voltage Divide-by-3 ILFD, the ILFD is realized with an NMOS cross-coupled MOSFET LC-tank oscillator with two direct injection MOSFETs across the resonator inductors for signal injection. One level of cross-coupled transistors is used for low voltage and power operation. Measurement results show that at the supply voltage of 1.0 V, the free-running frequency is from 4.83 GHz to 5.21 GHz. At the incident power of 0 dBm, the total locking range is from the incident frequency 14.45 GHz to 15.68 GHz. The power consumption of the ILFD core is 4 mW.
In the Low Voltage Divide-by-2 ILFD, the circuit is realized with a cross-coupled nMOS LC-tank oscillator with an injection MOS. The self-oscillating VCO is injection-locked by second-harmonic input to obtain the division order of two. Measurement results show that at the supply voltage of 0.8V, the free-running frequency is from 3.6 GHz to 4.17 GHz. At the incident power of 0 dBm, the locking range is from the incident frequency 4.1 GHz to 11.2 GHz.
In the Low Voltage Quadrature Divide-by-2 ILFD, the ILFD consists of a new 5.35 GHz QVCO and two NMOS switches, which are in parallel with the QVCO resonators for signal injection. The core power consumption is 5.72mW at the supply voltage of 0.8 V. The free-running frequency of the QILFD is tunable from 5.24 GHz to 5.55GHz. At the input power of 0dBm, the total divide-by-2 locking range is from 8.2 GHz to 13.3 GHz as the tuning voltage is biased at 0.8 V.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 V
TABLE OF CONTENTS VI
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
LIST OF TABLES XI
INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER1 1
1.1 BACKGROUND 1
1.2 THESIS ORGANIZATION 4
CHAPTER 2 THE PRINCIPLE OF OSCILLATORS 7
2.1 BASIC THEORY OF OSCILLATORS 7
2.1.1 Two-Port (Feedback) View 7
2.1.2 One-Port (Negative Resistance) View 10
2.2 QUALITY FACTOR 12
2.3 PHASE NOISE 15
2.3.1 Defination of The Phase Noise 15
2.3.2 Power and FOM 21
2.4 ON-CHIP VARACTORS 22
2.4.1 Diode Varactor 22
2.4.2 MOS Varactor 24
2.5 ON CHIP INDUCTORS 28
2.5.1 Spiral Inductor 29
2.5.2 The Transformer 36
2.6 THE POPULAR RESONATOR 42
2.6.1 Single Transistor Oscillator 44
2.6.2 Cross-Coupled Oscillator 47
2.6.3 Complementary Cross-Coupled Topology 49
2.7 PARAMETERS OF VCO’S 51
CHAPTER 3 A LOW POWER DIRECT-INJECTION LC TANK DIVIDE-BY-3 INJECTION-LOCKED FREQUENCY DIVIDER 57
3.1 INTRODUCTION 57
3.2 CIRCUIT DESIGN 59
3.3 MEASUREMENT AND DISCUSSION 62
3.4 CONCLUSION 67
CHAPTER 4 LOW-VOLTAGE WIDE LOCKING RANGE INJECTION LOCKED FREQUENCY DIVIDER 69
4.1 INTRODUCTION 69
4.2 CIRCUIT DESIGN 71
4.3 MEASUREMENT AND DISCUSSION 76
4.4 CONCLUSION 84
CHAPTER 5 LOW-VOLTAGE WIDE-LOCKING RANGE CMOS QUADRATURE INJECTION-LOCKED FREQUENCY DIVIDER 85
5.1 INTRODUCTION 85
5.2 DESIGN OF THE QILFD 87
5.3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 89
5.4 CONCLUSION 96
REFERENCES 97
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