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研究生:楊宗曄
研究生(外文):Tsung-yeh Yang
論文名稱:隨意式無線網路之鄰近基準判斷能源管理協定之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Neighborhood-based Energy Conservation Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks
指導教授:陳省隆
指導教授(外文):Hsing-Lung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:連結支配集連結性涵蓋性鄰近基準NEC能源有效性GAF全球衛星定位系統without GPS隨意式無線網路網路生命時間省電
外文關鍵詞:connected dominating setconnectivitycoverageneighborhood-basedNECenergy efficiencyGAFGPSwithout GPSMANETnetwork lifetimepower-saving
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隨意式無線網路(Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork,MANETs),是由一群行動節點(mobile hosts)所組成的無基地台式(Infrastructure-less)的無線網路架構。每個行動節點都可以擔任封包轉送的角色,由於節點所攜帶的能源是有限的,因此能源有效性(energy efficiency)策略變成一個重要的議題。GAF(geographical adaptive fidelity)協定根據連結支配集(connected dominating set,CDS)的概念,設計出以網格為基礎的結構,將整個網路拓樸切割成數個相等的正四邊形網格,稱為虛擬網格(virtual grids),並且在每個網格中只需要一個唯一的節點來參與封包轉送。

本論文旨在提出不需GPS的鄰近基準判斷能源管理(Neighborhood-based Energy Conservation,NEC)省電協定,採用GAF協定所定義的節點狀態轉移,但捨棄虛擬網格的觀念,假設無線傳輸訊號範圍為R,以0.5R作為節點從發現狀態進入活動狀態的門檻值,向外擴展連結骨幹。另外,若兩最近相鄰節點距離大於0.72R,則此節點也從發現狀態進入活動狀態以加強其連結性。利用NEC中設計的退場機制減少處於活動狀態的節點,以達到延長網路生命時間(network lifetime)。

以及目前這方面相關的研究都是用GPS(Global Position System全球衛星定位系統)來判斷節點之間的位置遠近關係,在沒有GPS的環境下無法使用,以及GPS本身也有耗電的問題。NEC中提出連續發送近距離、中距離、遠距離信標方法去判斷節點之間的遠近距離,透過適當的設計減少發送碰撞增加進退場判斷的準確度。
A MANET(Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork) is an infrastructure-less network consisting of a set mobile hosts. Each mobile host can forward packets for others. Energy efficiency is a critical issue in MANETs since the nodes are energy-limited devices. GAF(geographical adaptive fidelity)protocol derived the grid-based architecture based on the idea of connected dominating set. GAF divides the whole network area into disjoint identical square grids, called virtual grid; in each grid, there is only one node for forwarding packets.

The purpose of this thesis is to propose a neighborhood-based energy conservation protocol (NEC) without GPS. The NEC protocol adopts the state transition defined by GAF, but without employing virtual grids. We use the half of the radio range R as the threshold for electing as the active nodes, resulting in spreading out of the connected backbone. Furthermore, if two closest neighbors are far away more than 0.72R, the discovery node must be elected as the active node to enhance the connectivity. Employing the withdrawal Mechanism designed in NEC, NEC can reduce the active nodes, resulting in making the network lifetime longer.

Previous researches use GPS(Global Position System)to get nodes’ position and calculate the distances between any pairs of two nodes. They cannot be employed in the environment without GPS, and GPS itself also consumes energy. In the NEC, we take an approach which sends near distance beacon, middle distance beacon, and far distance beacon sequentially to judge the distance types between any pairs of two nodes. By employing appropriate scheduling of sending beacons, NEC can reduce collision significantly and increase the accuracy of the entry-withdraw judgement.
中文摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 v
章節目錄 vi
圖表目錄 vii
第一章、緒論 8
1.1 研究背景 8
1.2 研究動機與目的 9
1.3 章節簡介 11
第二章、相關研究 12
2.1 相關研究分類 12
2.2 連結支配集 13
2.3 GAF 15
2.4階層式能源保留機制(HEC) 20
2.5擴展式能源管理協定(SEC) 28
第三章、鄰近基準判斷能源管理協定 37
3.1 NEC演算法假設 39
3.2 NEC演算法 42
第四章、實驗模擬與效能評估 61
4.2 網路連結性 69
4.2.2平均資料傳送延遲 72
第五章、結論與未來工作 75
參考文獻 77
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