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研究生:張枱謙
研究生(外文):Tai-chien Chang
論文名稱:使用ZigBee技術於嵌入式系統之室內定位平台開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of Indoor Positioning Platform using ZigBee Technology on Embedded System
指導教授:邱炳樟邱炳樟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Bin-Chang Chieu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:室內定位無線感測網路定位演算法嵌入式平台
外文關鍵詞:ZigBeeRSSIIndoor LocationLocalizationPositioningWireless Sensor NetworksRSSIReceived Signal StrengthEmbedded System
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有鑑於最近有關情境感知、位置感知的研究領域逐漸受到重視,許多產品也開始加入定位的功能,本篇論文著重在如何建構一套低成本的室內定位系統,希望可應用於博物館導覽、居家照顧等;整個系統主要使用廣登電子所支援的QRZ2400 ZigBee模組來實現室內定位系統,連接以ARM920T S3C2443為核心的嵌入式開發平台做為主要控制端與使用者介面端,而在室內定位布局方面採用三組ZigBee模組節點作為定位的參考端,並以ZigBee模組的RSSI數值作為定位演算依據,本研究採用傳統與幾何概念的定位法來加以實現並顯示目前位置在螢幕上,好讓控制端可以知道自己本身的位置。
Context-Aware and Location-Aware received much attention in recent year, more and more products also have added the feature of positioning. This thesis emphasizes that how to development a low-cost indoor positioning system that can apply it in Museum Guide, Home Health-Care, etc. It uses QRZ2400 ZigBee Module supported by QuadRep Electronic to implement. The ZigBee Module can connect to the Embedded System that uses ARM920T S3C2443 CPU core as control-end and User-Interface function. In the indoor positioning environment, we use three End-nodes of ZigBee Modules as reference nodes for the purpose of positioning and we can take the RSSI value as a valid source for positioning algorithms. In the thesis, we use the traditional and geometric algorithms to implement and show the “Current Position” on the touch screen for control-end.
摘要 I
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景及動機 1
1.2 研究方法 4
1.3 論文架構 4
第二章 相關技術介紹 5
2.1 ZigBee®╱IEEE 802.15.4 無線網路技術 5
2.2 IEEE 802.15.4 特性與實體層 7
2.2.1 IEEE 802.15.4的分類 9
2.2.2 IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPAN的網路拓樸 10
2.2.3 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Sublayer傳輸模式與Superframe 12
2.3 ZigBee規格簡介 15
2.3.1 ZigBee 網路層 16
2.3.2 ZigBee 應用層 18
2.4 定位演算法簡介 20
2.4.1 AOA(Angle of Arrival)定位法 21
2.4.2 TOA (Time of Arrival)定位法 23
2.4.3 TDOA (Time different of Arrival)定位法 25
2.4.4 RSS (Received Signal Strength)定位法 27
第三章 ZigBee系統架構與開發環境 29
3.1 ZigBee 硬體開發環境介紹 29
3.2 ZigBee 韌體開發工具 33
3.2.1 iZAP 特色: 34
3.3 iZAP Stack開發環境: 34
3.4 燒錄iZAP Stack至開發版: 37
第四章 ARM嵌入式系統與開發環境 38
4.1 C343 開發平台 39
4.2 S3C2443 CPU介紹 41
4.3 軟體開發平台選擇 43
4.3 安裝開發工具與核心編譯 44
4.4 燒錄Bootloader並下載核心映像檔 46
第五章 研究設計與實作流程 47
5.1 系統架構 47
5.2 實際測量RF訊號傳播衰減並建立模型 53
5.3 程式開發 55
5.4 定位演算法實現 56
5.5 實測結果與實驗成品圖 63
第六章 結論及未來展望 65
參考文獻 67
[1] H. Liu et al., “Survey of Wireless Indoor Positioning Techniques and Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol.37, NO.6, pp.1073, Nov.2007
[2] N. Patwari, A O. Hero, , M. Perkins, ,N. S. Correal, , and R.t J. O’Dea, “Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, VOL. 51, NO. 8, pp 2137-2147. AUG. 2003
[3] K. Pahlavan and X. Li,J.Mäkelä,“Indoor Geolocation Science and Technology”IEEE Communications Magazine, pp.112-118, Feb. 2002
[4] N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, D. Estrin, and T. Tran,“Self-configuring localization systems: Design and Experimental Evaluation,” ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 24-60, Feb. 2004.
[5] S. Venkatraman and J. Caffery Jr., “Hybrid TOA/AOA techniques for mobile location in non-line-of-sight environments,” IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, vol. 1, pp. 274-278, Mar. 2004.
[6] J. J. Caffery, Jr.,“A New Approach to the Geometry of TOA Location” IEEE VTS Fall VTC 2000,52nd, vol.4, pp.1943-1949 , 2000
[7] C.L. Chen, “Wireless Location Estimation and Tracking System for Mobile Devices”, Master Thesis of National Chiao Tung University,January 7. 2006
[8] T.K. Shen, “Development of a SOPC-Based Positioning System in Wireless Network Application”, Master Thesis of National Cheng kung University ,July 14. 2005
[9] S.F. Su, “The Design and Implementation of the ZigBee Protocol Driver in Linux” Master Thesis of National Cheng kung University ,July 14. 2005
[10] J.L. Lin,“Development of Wireless Sensor Network for Home Health-Care Application”Master Thesis of National Chiao Tung University,Jun. 2006
[11] Dept. Electrical Engineering, NCCU,“第六章 無線通道模型概論”2008; http://www.ee.ccu.edu.tw/~wl/ofdm/class/class%20pdf/Channel%20model.pdf
[12] K. Kaemarungsi and P. Krishnamurthy, "Properties of Indoor Received Signal Strength for WLAN Location Fingerprinting",IEEE Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems, pp. 14-23, Aug. 2004.
[13] C.Y. Li,“The Implementation of an Indoor Geolocation System”, Master Thesis of National Central University,Jul.2005
[14] S. Venkatraman and J. Caffery, “Jr Hybrid TOA/AOA Techniques for Mobile Location in Non-Line-of-Sight Environments” ,WCNC 2004,IEEE Communications Society,pp.274-278,2004
[15] IEEE Std 802.15.4-2006, “Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs) ” , New York, NY:IEEE, September 2006.
[16] ZigBee Alliance, “ZigBee Document 053474r17” ,Jan. 17. 2008; http://www.zigbee.org/
[17] W. Sirichote,“RS232C Level Converter”; http://www.kmitl.ac.th/~kswichit%20/MAX232/MAX232.htm
[18] Iinstitute for Information Industry , Related Documents of iZAP_2400_SDK
[19] QuadRep Electronic, Related Documents of QR SDK
[20] UBEC , DS-2400-02 v0_6_RN_Preliminary.pdf (Datasheet of UZ2400)
[21] CoAsia Electronic, Related Documents of C343 Board. ;http://www.coasia.com.tw/en/html/Product02-7-1.php
[22] D. Boling , “Programming Microsoft Windows CE .NET, Third Edition”
[23] 劉宏煥、林世儀, “無線感測網路介紹與溫度感測網路製作” ,第六屆離島資訊技術與應用研討會, Jun.2007
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