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研究生:陳怡永
研究生(外文):Yi-Yung Chen
論文名稱:使用自然光源以及人造光源之照明導光系統之設計、分析與製造
論文名稱(外文):Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Light Guiding System with Natural and Artificial Light Sources for Illumination
指導教授:黃忠偉黃忠偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Allen Jong-Woei Whang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:139
外文關鍵詞:Indoor IlluminationSun Tracking SystemStatic ConcentratorCascadable Optical UnitCompressing LightAuxiliary IlluminationTapered LightpipeColor Mixing SystemLED ArrayLEDSecondary Optics DesignTIR LensYellow Hue PhenomenonDie-Imaging PhenomenonCassegrain ConcentratorCPC Structure
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自然光源之照明導光系統可分為集光、導光、以及放光三大部分,其中集光部分可區分為動態與靜態兩種系統。動態集光系統大多使用拋物型反射罩搭配太陽追蹤系統,可提供高效能的集光能力,然而自然光源中的UV會導致人體細胞受損、IR則會產生額外熱量,因此降低了自然光源的照明品質。為了提高照明品質,我們透過色差理論設計色差透鏡來改善原有的動態集光系統。此改良型系統可濾除近乎全部的UV以及一半的IR,並且提供近似自然光的照明光源。搭配動態追蹤系統可獲得高效能的集光系統,但需要額外的電力損耗以及定期的系統維護,因此提出靜態集光器結合導光管之照明系統。我們透過邊緣光線理論設計出符合台北日照條件的二維式複合拋物集光器,並提供兩種使用條件下的效能評估。為了評估導光系統的傳導效率,我們推導出計算導光管內光線反射次數的三維數學模式。
大多數的高效能集光系統對自然光源的入射角度非常敏感,因此搭配動態追蹤系統來克服此缺點。為了免除高成本的太陽追蹤系統,我們設計一靜態集光器來減少自然光源之入射角度,以提高後端光學元件的使用時間。根據漸暈效應與光損程度來分析此折射式集光器的設計條件,並根據所定義的參數來比較不同型態的折光能力。為了收集大面積的自然光源,我們設計一光學結構可如磁磚般地鋪設於建築物外牆來收集自然光,此結構的最小單位必須可同時收集上方與鄰近單元的自然光。根據共焦系統原理與平板概念來設計鋸齒型與曲面型兩種單元,並分析各單元的穿透效率與出射光束的平行度。
根據光的可逆性,放光系統可基於靜態集光系統進行逆向設計,在此論文放光部份著重於人造光源之輔助照明設計。首先我們提出楔型導光管結合RGB LED的應用,並推導出楔型導光管的出光角度之數學模式。在此提出一應用案例,可獲得80%以上的傳輸效率以及60%以上的均勻度,同時可取代色輪來提供RGB的混色。若使用白光LED為輔助光源,照明系統通常使用陣列式排列設計,LED顆數、均勻度、以及光場分布為此設計的指標。我們提出一設計方法與流程,可使用少量的LED個數來達到均勻的照明以及正確的光場分布,進而提供高品質的輔助照明系統。為了擴大應用範圍,LED通常會搭配二次光學元件來達到特定要求,但二次光學元件常會引起晶粒成像以及黃圈現象,降低輔助照明的品質。為進行相關研究,我們透過光束路徑來分析元件成像能力與晶粒成像以及黃圈現象的關聯,並使用色差公式以及麥克亞當橢圓來量化黃圈現象的程度。
The light guiding system with sunlight can be separated into collecting, guiding, and illumination parts. The collecting part has dynamic and static systems. Many dynamic system use parabolic concentrator with sun tracking system for high efficiency. However, exposure to UV in sunlight has been proved to be hazardous to humans, and the heat content of IR degrades illumination quality. In order to solve the two problems, we develop an innovative cassegrain solar concentrator system utilizing the theory of chromatic aberration by a chromatic lens to filter out UV completely and reduce IR by half. Further, collected light is almost equal to sunlight that the two appear equal to the human eye. However, using a concentrator with sun tracking system consumes electric power and needs frequent maintenance. We design an optical component to collect sunlight for indoor illumination that includes a collecting part and a guiding part without a sun tracking system. In this design, we use a CPC structure utilizing the edge-ray principle to design the collecting part to gather sunlight at many different angles. For the maximum efficiency, we define two conditions to evaluate the static concentrator is total energy saving in the visible range. Because the efficiency of the guiding depends on the number of times the rays are reflected, we build a math model to calculate the number of reflections in a circular lightpipe.
For improve the efficiency of the static collecting part, we present another static concentrator system made up of refractional units for changing slanted sunlight to vertical light. The capability can improve the efficiency of the optical structure under it. Based on the vignetting effect and the loss of sunlight, we discuss the configurations of refractional units and compare their performances. For evaluating the performances, we define a parameter to evaluate the refracting capability. And then, we design optical structure to be used as tiles on the outsides of buildings to collect the sunlight from the static concentrator. To cover an entire building, we have designed optical units to be used together that can compress light. We have used saw-toothed surface and curved surface with two different principles, the Co-focus and Parallel-plate, to design four kinds of optical units. Finally, we analyze the efficiency and the beam divergence angle to compare these optical structures.
According to the reversibility of light, the illumination part of light guiding system can be designed with the reverse engineering of guiding part. We focus on artificial light source, LED, for auxiliary illumination system. First, we design a RGB LED illumination system that can use color sequential to replace color wheel and also can mix color to get the color you want. Optical element tapered lightpipe is also used in this structure, and we investigate to understand the mechanism of irradiance distribution, it assists in the design of lightpipe for different applications. The efficiency is above 80% and the uniformity is better than 60%. LED array is the general method if using whit LED to be auxiliary light source. We present a theory and design method by systemic concepts and focuses on the study of optical properties. We can design, efficiently, a LED lighting module and achieve a satisfactory uniformity by this theory and method, the design of a uniform LED illumination system. By this method, we not only obtain the maximally flat illumination distribution but also the emitting angle of the system can be designed at will. For a wide application area, LEDs are always with secondary optic elements for a specific characteristic. However, the secondary optic element has two serious phenomena, die-imaging and yellow hue to reduce the quality of illumination. We study the two phenomena on the relationship between the phenomena and the imaging power of TIR lens. Finally, we adopt the MacAdam ellipsis system to define the reasonable color gamut.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 IV
THE CATALOG OF CONTENT V
THE CATALOG OF FIGURES IX
THE CATALOG OF TABLES XIII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 THE BACKGROUND 1
1.2 THE OUTLINE 4
CHAPTER 2 SOLAR CONCENTRATOR SYSTEM TO FILTER OUT UV AND IR 5
2.1 METHOD FOR SOLAR CONCENTRATOR DESIGN 5
2.1.1 Theory of chromatic aberration 5
2.1.2 Innovative cassegrain solar concentrator system 6
2.1.3 The dispersion model 8
2.1.4 Modified item 11
2.2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 12
2.2.1 Light radiant flux versus lightpipe distance 12
2.2.2 Normalize illumination spectrum 14
2.2.3 Color performance 16
CHAPTER 3 NATURAL LIGHT GUIDING CPC STRUCTURE 19
3.1 THE SUN INFORMATION 19
3.1.1 The Transformation from Radiometric into Photometric 20
3.1.2 The Transformation from a Horizontal Plane to a Tilted Plane 21
3.1.3 The Collecting Range of the CPC collector 23
3.2 THE SIMULATION OF CPC COLLECTOR 24
3.2.1 The Edge-Ray Principle 24
3.2.2 Design the CPC collector model 25
3.2.3 The Efficiency of the CPC collector 26
3.2.4 The Total Energy Saving of the CPC Collector 27
3.3 THE MATH MODEL OF LIGHTPIPE 29
3.3.1 The Coordinate of the Math Model 29
3.3.2 The derivation of the Math Model 30
CHAPTER 4 STATIC REFRACTIVE CONCENTRATOR 32
4.1 THE CONDITION OF DESIGN 32
4.1.1 The Condition of Solar Energy 33
4.1.2 The Incident Angle of Solar Concentrator 34
4.2 THE METHOD OF THE REFRACTIONAL UNIT 36
4.2.1 The Vignetting Effect 36
4.2.2 The Collecting Time 37
4.2.3 The Lens Maker’s Formula 38
4.3 THE DESIGN OF THE REFRACTIONAL UNIT 38
4.3.1 The Convergent-and-Divergent Configuration 38
4.3.2 The Divergent-and-Convergent Configuration 40
4.4 THE PERFORMANCE OF STATIC CONCENTRATOR 41
CHAPTER 5 CASCADABLE OPTICAL UNIT 43
5.1 THE STRUCTURE OF THE OPTICAL UNIT 43
5.1.1 The Concept from Co-focus System 44
5.1.2 The Concept from Parallel-plate 45
5.2 THE UNIT WITH SAW-TOOTHED SURFACE 45
5.2.1 Co-focus System 46
5.2.2 Parallel-plate 51
5.3 THE UNIT WITH CURVED SURFACE 56
5.3.1 Co-focus System 57
5.3.2 Parallel-plate 60
5.4 THE SIMULATION OF THE OPTICAL STRUCTURE 63
5.4.1 The efficiency of the series 63
5.4.2 The efficiency of the transformation 64
5.4.3 The Utilization Rate 67
5.4.4 The Complex Curved Type 67
5.4.5 The Summary 69


CHAPTER 6 TAPERED LIGHT PIPE 70
6.1 TWO-DIMENSIONAL IRRADIANCE FORMATIONS IN TAPERED LIGHT PIPE 70
6.2 COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS 75
6.2.1 The Ray Trace 75
6.2.2 The Intensity Distribution 75
6.3 APPLICATION AND ANALYSIS 76
6.3.1 The Integrator Light Pipe 76
6.3.2 The Mix Color 78
CHAPTER 7 SURFACE-TAILORED LENS 80
7.1 UNIFORM ILLUMINATION SYSTEM 80
7.1.1 The Configurations of LED Arrays 80
7.1.2 The Purpose of Our System 81
7.2 DESIGN OF HIGH UNIFORM LED ARRAYS 81
7.2.1 Radiometric Analysis 82
7.2.2 Sparrow’s Criterion 83
7.2.3 Uniform Illumination System of Two LEDs Source 83
7.2.4 Three Kinds of Uniform Illumination Systems 85
7.3 DESIGN OF DIFFERENT LED EMISSION ANGLES 89
7.3.1 Setting the Initial Condition of Lens 90
7.3.2 Method of Lens Design 90
7.4 REVOLUTION OF POINT SOURCE APPROXIMATION 93
7.5 FLOWCHART OF DESIGN 94
7.6 RESULTS OF SIMULATION 94
7.6.1 Uniform Illumination System of Circular Ring LED Array 95
7.6.2 Uniform Illumination System of 4x4 Square LED Array 96
CHAPTER 8 LED TIR LENS 99
8.1 THE CONDITIONS OF THE SIMULATION 99
8.1.1 The Simulation Conditions 99
8.1.2 The Two TIR Lens 100
8.2 DIE-IMAGING PHENOMENON 101
8.2.1 The Ray Path 101
8.2.2 The Intensity Distribution 103

8.3 YELLOW HUE PHENOMENON 103
8.3.1 The Simulation of White LED 104
8.3.2 Result From Using Two TIR Lenses 105
8.3.3 The Color Difference 106
8.3.4 The MacAdam Ellipsis System 108
8.4 REALIZATION AND MEASUREMENTS 110
8.4.1 The Viewing Angle 110
8.4.2 The Phenomena 111
CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION 112
REFERENCES 115
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY 121
THE JOURNAL PAPER LIST 121
THE CONFERENCE PAPER LIST 122
THE PATENT LIST 123
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