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研究生:程上福
研究生(外文):Shang-Fu Cheng
論文名稱:以DSP實現人眼視覺之橢圓目標物量測系統
論文名稱(外文):The Implementation of the Elliptical Object Estimating System Using the Binocular Stereo Vision Based on DSP
指導教授:蔡超人
指導教授(外文):Chau-Ren Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:數位訊號處理器雙眼視覺眼珠轉動景深三維座標橢圓偵測
外文關鍵詞:DSPStereo VisionEye MovementDepth3-D coordinateEllipse Detection
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以往大部分的雙眼視覺系統,不管建構在自走車或機器人上,皆以頭部旋轉方式來達到雙眼視覺系統的轉動,且多是以個人電腦為基礎架構,而導致無法使雙眼視覺系統獨立運作,然而隨著數位訊號處理器(DSP:Digital Signal Processor)的效能及準確度漸漸提高,且體積小,因此能滿足大部分系統在「即時性」的需求,所以本論文利用德州儀器生產的數位訊號處理器TMS320DM642 EVM作為開發平台,建立一套人眼視覺之橢圓目標物量測系統。首先將擷取進來的連續影像利用移動邊緣偵測法來得到移動物體的邊緣,並透過橢圓偵測來得出橢圓目標物,將橢圓目標物之橢心位置來當作一組立體影像的對應點,透過眼珠子轉動模型搭配雙眼視覺的原理,推導出一通用的眼珠子轉動之三維空間座標轉換公式,以計算出三維空間座標與三維移動速率,最後透過RS-232將目標物三維資訊傳送至個人電腦的VB端,而VB端會在視窗介面上即時地顯示所接收到的資料及橢圓目標物之移動軌跡,並將三維資訊儲存成文字檔,以用來分析橢圓目標物之移動軌跡及誤差率。
Formerly most of binocular vision systems are based on personal computer, the PC is high consuming power and lower efficiency of the system, so it’s not suitable for stand-alone systems. In recent years, the constant advancement in technology increased the processing speed of Digital Signal Processor (DSP), not only are DSP-based systems small size and suitable for stand-alone but also meet most systems’ requirement for real-time performance.We combine TI TMS320DM642 EVM and two PTZ (Pan, Tilt, Zoom) cameras to be the research developing platform for our binocular vision system. At first, the binocular PTZ camera intercept two stereo images, then the system get the motion object’s edge and elliptical object by using image processing methods, and then counts the center coordinate of each elliptical object images for stereo system. By using eye movement’s model and binocular vision principle, the system can calculate the distance from the two PTZ cameras base to the elliptical object, and so do the 3-D coordinate and the moving velocity of elliptical object, finally we transmit elliptical object information to VB through RS-232. After receiving the information, VB will display the information and elliptical object’s trajectory on the interface and save the information as a text file.
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖索引 VIII
表索引 XII

第一章 緒論..................................1
1.1 研究動機與目的...........................1
1.2 研究方法.................................2
1.3 論文架構.................................3

第二章 系統架構..............................4
2.1 目標物偵測程序...........................5
2.2 目標物追蹤程序...........................6
2.3 三維座標量測程序.........................8
2.4 資料傳輸程序.............................9
2.5 硬體配置與規格..........................10

第三章 目標物偵測程序.......................14
3.1 影像前處理..............................14
3.1.1 連續影像相減法........................15
3.1.2 低通濾波器............................17
3.1.3 影像邊緣偵測..........................19
3.2 移動邊緣偵測............................22
3.3 橢圓目標物偵測..........................23
3.3.1 橢圓模組建立..........................24
3.3.2 橢圓模組搜尋法........................26
3.3.3 樣板建立..............................33
3.3.4 樣板比對..............................34
3.4 目標物偵測程序流程......................36

第四章 目標物追蹤程序.......................38
4.1 紅球追蹤程序............................38
4.1.1 動態搜尋範圍..........................40
4.1.2 紅球追蹤程序流程......................43
4.2 頭部追蹤程序............................45
4.2.1 動態搜尋範圍..........................45
4.2.2 混合式追蹤演算法......................47
4.2.3 頭部追蹤程序流程......................49
4.3 目標物追蹤程序流程......................50

第五章 雙眼視覺系統與三維座標量測程序.......52
5.1 雙眼視覺之特性..........................52
5.1.1 單眼視覺測量景深......................55
5.1.2 雙眼視覺測量景深......................55
5.2 攝影機架設與校正........................56
5.2.1 雙攝影機之架設........................57
5.2.2 雙攝影機之簡易影像校正................58
5.3 三維座標之演算方法......................60
5.3.1 透視投影..............................60
5.3.2 鏡頭焦距計算..........................62
5.3.3 對應點景深之計算......................64
5.3.4 三維座標點之計算......................68
5.4 移動速率之計算與計時器設定..............72
5.5 雙攝影機之轉動控制......................75
5.6 目標物量測之程序流程....................76

第六章 資料傳輸架構與程序...................78
6.1 DSP端之資料傳輸流程.....................79
6.1.1 資料之接收與傳送......................79
6.1.2 DSP之RS-232模組......................80
6.2 VB軟體介面端之資料傳輸流程..............81
6.2.1 資料之接收與傳送......................81
6.2.2 資料之即時顯示與儲存成文字檔案........84
6.3 傳輸架構與程序流程......................85

第七章 系統實現與效能測試...................87
7.1 系統實現................................87
7.2 系統效能測試............................92
7.3 誤差分析................................97
7.3.1 三維座標之誤差........................97
7.3.2 三維移動速率之誤差....................99
7.3.3 雙攝影機放置距離之誤差比較...........100
7.4 量測數據...............................101
7.4.1 定點量測.............................101
7.4.2 移動量測.............................110

第八章 結論與未來研究方向..................115
8.1 結論...................................115
8.2 未來研究方向...........................119

參考文獻...................................120
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