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研究生:廖壯安
研究生(外文):Zhuang-an Liao
論文名稱:TwoWheeledInvertedPendulumBalancingControlbyUsingSlidingModeControlandPDControl
論文名稱(外文):Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Balancing Control by Using Sliding Mode Control and PD Control
指導教授:黃緒哲
指導教授(外文):Shiuh-Jer Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:sliding mode controltwo wheeled inverted pendulum
外文關鍵詞:sliding mode controltwo wheeled inverted pendulum
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In this thesis, Motor Driver Circuit and Two wheeled Inverted Pendulum system was built with some sensor circuits to calculate the tilt angle of the Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum and control motors. All the mechatronics system are Integrated into PC based control structure and Turbo C language is used to design the control programs.
The mathematical model of wheeled inverted pendulum which is highly nonlinear is derived. Since Wheeled inverted pendulum is a nonlinear, unstable system, sliding mode control is employed to design the controller. The mathematical model is used to design the Sliding Mode Controller, and some simulation cases are executed to evaluate the dynamic performance of this wheeled inverted pendulum.
In this thesis, Motor Driver Circuit and Two wheeled Inverted Pendulum system was built with some sensor circuits to calculate the tilt angle of the Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum and control motors. All the mechatronics system are Integrated into PC based control structure and Turbo C language is used to design the control programs.
The mathematical model of wheeled inverted pendulum which is highly nonlinear is derived. Since Wheeled inverted pendulum is a nonlinear, unstable system, sliding mode control is employed to design the controller. The mathematical model is used to design the Sliding Mode Controller, and some simulation cases are executed to evaluate the dynamic performance of this wheeled inverted pendulum.
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………… I
Content………………………………………………………………………………. II
List of Figure……………………………………………………………………… IV
Nomenclature………………………………………………………………………… VI
Chapter 1……………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Literature Review……………………........................ 1
1.2.1 Inverted Pendulum……………………………………... 2
1.2.2 Two Wheeled Balancing Robot………………………... 4
1.3 Thesis Structure…………………………………………………….. 6
Chapter 2…………………………………......................................7
2.1 System design and connecting process…………………………… 7
2.2 System Plant………………………………………………………….. 8
2.2.1 Hardware…………………………………………………… 8
2.2.1.1 Moving Robot Plate………………………………… 8
2.2.1.2 Actuator…………………………………………….. 9
2.2.1.3 Sensor……………………………………………………….. 9
2.2.1.4 PC-Based control system interface cards……………… 15
2.2.1.4.1 PCL-726…………………………………………….. 15
2.2.1.4.2 PCL-833…………………………………………….. 15
2.2.1.4.3 PCL-812…………………………………………….. 16
2.2.2 Software programs………………………………………………… 17
Chapter 3……………………………………………………………………………… 18
3.1 Dynamic Model of DC motor…………………………………………… 18
3.2 Dynamic Model of Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum……………… 20
3.3 Parameters…………………………………………………………….. 26
Chapter 4………………………………………………………………………………....28
4.1 PID Control Theories………………………………………………… 28
4.2 Sliding Mode Control………………………………………………… 31
4.3 PD Controller Design…………………………………………………. 35
4.4 Sliding Mode Controller design…………………………………… 36
4.4.1 Sliding Mode Control design only considering the
port angle…..............................................37
4.4.2 Sliding Mode Control design considering both
port angle and position...................................38
Chapter 5………………………………………………………………………………....40
5.1 Experimental & SimulationResults………………………………… 40
5.2 Discussion……………………………………………………………… 51
Chapter 6………………………………………………………………………………....53
6.1 Conclusion………………………………………………………………..53
6.2 Future Works………………………………………………………….. 53
Reference……………………………………………………………………………… 54
Aoutobiography……………………………………………………………………….. 57
[1] Segway Human Transporter (2004). [Online]. Available: http://www.segway.com, February 6, 2008.
[2] Felix Grasser, Aldo D’arrigo, Silvio Colombi, Alfred Rufer, “ JOE: A Mobile, Inverted Pendulum”, IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 1, February 2002.
[3] S.W. Nawawi, M.N. Ahmad, J.H.S Osman, A.R Husain, and M.F Abdollah,” Controller Design for Two-Wheels Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot Using PISMC”, 4th Student Conference on Reseach and Development , Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, 2006.
[4] Kaustubh Pathak, Jaume Franch, and Sunil K. Agrawal, “ Velocity and Position Control of a Wheeled Inverted Pendulum by Partial Feedback Linearization”, IEEE Transactions on Robotics. Vol. 21, No. 3, June 2005.
[5] S.W. Nanawi, M.N Ahmad, and J.H.S Osman,” Control of Two-wheels Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot Using Full Order Sliding Mode Control”, Proceedings of International Confrence on Man-Machine Systems 2006.
[6] Alessio Salerno and Jorge Angeles, “ A New Family of Two-Wheeled Mobile Robots: Modeling and Controllability”, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol.23, No. 1, February 2007.
[7] Sang Yeol Seo, Seok Hee Kim, Se-Han Lee, Sung Hyun Han, and Han Sung Kim, ”Simulation of Attitude Control of a Wheeled Inverted Pendulum”, International Conference on Control, Automation and System 2007.
[8] Ong Yin Chee, Mohamad Shukri b. Zainal Abidin,” Design and Development of Two Wheeled Autonomous Balancing Robot”, 4th Student Conference on Reseach and Development , Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, 2006.
[9] Salerno, A. and Angles, J., “The control of semi-autonomous two-wheeled robot undergoing large payloads variations”. Proc. IEEE ICRA, New Orleans, April 2004.
[10] Baloh, M. and Parent, M., “Modeling and model verification of an intelligent self balancing two-wheeled vehicle for an autonomous urban transportation system”. Conf. Comp. Intelligence, Robotic and Autonomous systems, Singapore, Dec, 15, 2003.
[11] Y.H. Kim, S.H. Kim, and Y.K Kwak, “Dynamic Analysis of a Nonholonomic Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Robot”, Proc. Of the Eighth Int. Symp. On Artificial Life and Robotics, Beppu, Oita, Japan, 24-26 January, 2003.
[12] M.Y. Sam, J.H.S. Osman, and R.A. Ghani, “Proportional integral sliding mode control of a quarter car active suspension”, TENCON02, Vol. 3, Oct 2002, Beijing.
[13] Xiao-Yun Lu and S.K. Spurgeo, “Control of nonlinear non-minimum phase system using dynamic sliding mode”, International Journal of Systems Science, 1999.
[14] Yon-Ping Chen and Jeang-Lin Chang, “ A new method for constructing sliding surface of linear time-invariant system”, Int. J. of Systems Science,2000.
[15] A. Salerno, “Design, dynamics and control of a fast two-wheeled quasiholonomic robot,” Ph.D. dissertation , McGill Univ., Montreal, QC, Canada, 2006.
[16] R.J. Wai and L. J. Chang, “ Adaptive stabilizing and tracking control for a nonlinear inverted-pendulum system via sliding-mode technique,” IEEE Trans. Indus. Elec., Vol. 53, No.2, April 2006.
[17] R.N. Gasimov, A. Karamancioglu, A. Yazici, “ A nonlinear programming approach for the sliding mode control design,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol.29, 2005.
[18] T.L. Chung, T. H. Bui, T. T. Nguyen, S. B. Kim, “Sliding mode control of two-wheeled welding mobile robot for tracking smooth curved welding path,” KSME Int. J., Vol. 18, No.7, 2004.
[19] V.I. Utkin, “Variable structure system with sliding modes,” IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, Vol.22, No.2, 1977.
[20] J. Ackermann, V. Utkin, “Sliding mode control design based on Ackermann’s Formula”, IEEE Trans. Auto. Con. Vol.43, No.2, Feb. 1998.
[21] Y.S. Ha and S. Yuta, “ Trajectory tracking control for navigation of the inverse pendulum type self-contained mobile robot,” Robot. Autonom. Syst., vol. 17, 1996.
[22] J.J.E. Slotine and W. Li, “Applied Nonlinear Control”, Prentice Hall, 1991.
[23] C. Euwards, “ A practical method for the design of sliding mode controller using linear matrix inequalities” Automatica, Vol 40, 2004.
[24] Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2005. “Measuring Tilt with Low-g Accelerometers”
[25]Nbot a two Wheeled balancing Robot, http://www.geology.smu.edu/~dpa-www/robo/nbot, November, 26, 2007.
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