(3.236.214.19) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/06 22:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林珈安
研究生(外文):Chia-an Lin
論文名稱:外語系學生使用學習策略之個人認知-以科技大學在職班學生為例
論文名稱(外文):EFL Students' Perception in the Use of Language Learning Strategies
指導教授:王啟琳王啟琳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chilin Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:認知學習策略
外文關鍵詞:learning strategiesperception
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:172
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
中文摘要
本研究主要目的在探討外語系學生使用學習策略之情形及學生個人對使用該策略的自我認知。主要探討問題包括:(1)除了Oxford (1990)的SILL之外,外語系學生所使用的其它學習策略為何? (2)外語系學生對於個人所設定的英語學習策略其自我認知為何?(3)外語系學生對於高頻率使用的英語學習策略的自我認知為何?(4)外語系學生對於低頻率使用的英語學習策略的自我認知為何?本研究受測對象為科技大學外語系在職班的學生。此研究採用兩種工具,主要的工具為小組訪談;另一項工具為Oxford(1990)所編製的語言學習策略量表,此量表包括六大部分共50題的黎克型測驗,要求受測者根據實際情形,勾選出適當之英語學習策略使用頻率。根據問卷及訪談分析的結果顯示:(1)學習者會根據本身的學習目標,利用其個人環境,設計出適合自己獨特的策略;(2)學習者本身失敗的學習經驗,會導致個人對學習策略的負面認知;(3)學習策略並非全面性的適用於每一位學習者,學習者應根據本身的學習環境及個人背景選擇適合的策略。最後,此研究希望透過學習者本身對學習策略使用的觀點,對學生的英語學習策略使用情形有更深入的了解,期能對日後之相關研究有所幫助。
ABSTRACT
This study focuses on exploring language learners’ personal awareness and their use of language learning strategies in a group of EFL students at a university of science and technology in Taiwan. The study also aims to identify the language learning strategies reported by the learners. The present research adopted two instruments, the questionnaire of the SILL and group interviews. According to subjects’ reported frequency of certain EFL learning strategies, three group interviews were conducted to explore subjects’ perception of the use of learning strategies. The data collected from the subjects convey that (1) Learners were able to create their own strategies with different motivation, and took their environment and occupation as a learning tool. (2) Learners’ failed learning experience may lead to the negative concepts of specific learning strategies. (3) Learning strategies were not universally useful to all the learners. The pedagogical implications and suggestions based on the finding at EFL students’ perception are provided at the end of the report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chinese Abstract.. …...i
Abstract …..ii
Acknowledgement ….iii
Table of Contents …...iv
List of Tables ...viii
List of Figure… ….ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Motivation and Background …...1
1.2 Purpose of the Study …...4
1.3 Research Questions…. …...4
1.4 Significance of the Study ……...5
1.5 Definition of Terms ………...5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition of Learning Strategies …...7
2.2 Classification of Language Learning Strategies …...8
2.2.1 O’Malley et al.’s Classification ….13
2.2.2 Rubin’s Classification ….18
2.2.3 Oxford’s Classification ….19
2.3 The Importance of Language Learning Strategic Competence ….23
2.4 Individual Factors Affecting Strategy Choice ….26
2.5 The Use of Language Learning Strategies by Asian College Students……………39
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.1 Subjects ….43
3.2 Data Collection Tools ….43
3.2.1 Questionnaire ….44
3.2.2 Interviews ….45
3.3 Data Collection Procedure ….47
3.4 Data Analysis ….49
CHAPTER FOUR DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Strategies Not Included in the SILL ….51
4.2 The Most Frequently Used SILL Strategies…………. ….62
4.3 The Least Frequently Used SILL Strategies……… …….73
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Major Findings of the Study ….84
5.2 Implications of the Study ….91
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies ….92
5.4 Conclusion ….92


REFERENCES ….94
APPENDIX A: Oxford’s Strategy Classification System …107
APPENDIX B: Yang’s (1992) Chinese Version of Oxford’s Strategy Inventory for Language Learning ...109
APPENDIX C: Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (English Version) ...114
APPENDIX D: Subjects’ Response to the SILL Questionnaire ...119



LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Learning Strategies Identified by O’Malley et al……………………………….14
Table 2. Rubin’s Classification of Language Learning Strategies……………….............18
Table 3. Studies of Direct/ Indirect Learning Strategies Used by Asian College Students………………………………………………………………………….40
Table 4. Subjects’ Own Learning Strategies Not Included in the SILL……….………....62
Table 5. The Two Most Frequently Used SILL Strategies in Each of the Six Categories.63
Table 6. The Two Least Frequently Used SILL Strategies in Each of the Six Categories.74





















LIST OF FIGURE


Figure1. Oxford’s Strategy Classification System……………………………………….20
Reference
Bremner, S. (1999). Language learning strategies and language proficiency: Investigating the relationship in Hong Kong. Canadian Modern Language Review, 55(4), 490-514.
Brown, H. D. (1980). Principles and practices of language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brown, H. D. (1994). Principles of language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. NY: Longman.
Bruner, J. S. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University
Press.
Canale, M. & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, 1-47.
Carton, A. (1971). Inferencing: A process in suing and learning language. In P.
Pimsleur & T. Quinn (Eds.), The Psychology of Second Language Learning, 18,
45-58. Cambridge University Press.
Chamot, A. U. (1987). The learning strategies of ESL students. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annuals, 22(1), 13-24.
Chan, C. Y., & Teng, H. C. (2005). A study of metacognitive strategies in EFL listening comprehension. Proceeding of the 22nd conference on English teaching and learning in the Republic of China. 1-12. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co. 。
Chang, S. F., & Huang, S. C. (1999). Taiwanese English learner’s learning motivation and language learning strategies. Proceeding of the 16th conference on English teaching and learning in the Republic of China. 111-28. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.
Chang, S. J. (1992). A study of language learning behaviors of Chinese students at the university of Georgia and the relation of these behaviors to oral proficiency and other factors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, the USA.
Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 41: 469-512.
Donato, R. (2000). Sociocultural contributions to understanding the foreign and second language classroom. J. P. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: OUP.
Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273-284.
Dorney, Z. & Thurrell, S. (1992). Conversation and Dialogue in Action. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Regents.
Dunn, R. (1983). Learning style and its relation to exceptionality at both ends of the spectrum. Exceptional Children, 49, 496-506
Ehrman, M. (1990). The role of personality type in ad adult language learning: An ongoing investigation. T. S. Parry & C. W. Stansfield (Eds.), Language Aptitude de Reconsidered. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Regents.
Ehrman, M., & Oxford, R. L. (1989). Effect of sex difference, career choice, and
logical type on adults’ language learning strategies. The Modern Language
Journal, 73, 1-13.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Faerch, C., & Kasper, c. (1983a). Plans and strategies in foreign language communication. London: Longman.
Fedderholdt, K. (1997). “Using Diaries to Develop Language Learning Strategies”.
Retrieved December 22, 2007 from http:www.JRME.com.
Fischer, B., & Fischer, L. (1979), Styles in Teaching and Learning. Educational
Leadership, 36,245-254
Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. L.B. Resnick (Ed.),
The natural of intelligence. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and social language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C., Tremblay, P. F., & Masgoret, A. M. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: an empirical al investigation. The Modern Language Journal, 81(8), 344-362.
Ginsberg, E. (1992). Not just a matter of English. Herdsa News, 14(1), 6-8.
Green, J. M., & Oxford, R. (1995). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency and sex. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 261-297.
Griffiths, C., & Parr, J. (2001). Language-learning strategies: Theory and perception. English Language Teachers Journal, 55(3), 247-254
Heyde, A. (1979). The relationship between self-esteem and the oral production of a second language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan.
Hofstede, G. (1986). Cultural differences in teaching and learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 301-302.
Hsu, M. Y., & Huang, S. H. (2005). Elementary school students’ strategy use: On gender and personality differences. Selected Papers from the Thirteenth Internal Symposium and Book Fair on English Teaching, 28(4), 434-441.
Hu, G. (2002). Potential cultural resistance to pedagogical imports: The case of communicative language teaching in China. Language, Culture and Curriculum. Retrieved August 2, 2007 from http://www.multilingual-matters.net/lcc/015/0993/
lcc0150093pdf
Huang, X. H., & Van, N. M. (1987). Learning strategies for oral communication, Applied Linguistics, 8, 287-307.
Huang, S. C. (1997). Taiwanese senior high school students’ EFL learning: focus on learning strategies and learning beliefs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Indiana University.
Jordens, P. (1977). Towards a characterization of the strategy of transfer in second language leaning. Inerlanguage Studies Bulletin Utrecht, 2(1), 58-145.
Jung, C. (1923). Psychological Types. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Keller, J. M. (1983). Motivation design of instruction. G. M. Reigelruth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of Their Current Status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Yourk: Prentice- Hall.
Ku, P. Y. (1995). Strategies associated with proficiency and predictors of strategy choice: A study on language learning strategies of EFL students at three educational levels in Taiwan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Indiana.
Lessard-Clouston, M. (1997). Language Learning Strategies: An Overview for L2 Teacher. TESL Journal, 5,(8)
Liao, Y. F. (2000). A study of Taiwanese junior high school students’ EFL learning motivation and learning strategies. Unpublished master thesis, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, R.O.C.
Lin, S. H. (2000). A study of English listening comprehension strategies used by senior high school students in Taiwan. Unpublished master thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, R.O.C.
Lunt, H. (2000). The learning strategies of adult immigrant learners of English: quantitative and qualitative perspectives. Doctoral dissertation. The University of Melbourne.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Noels. K. (1996). Using social-psychological variables to predict the use of language learning strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 373-386.
Myers, I. (1962). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting
Psychologist Press.
Nunan, D. (1990). Learning to listen in a second language. Prospect, 5 (2), 7-23
Noguchi, C. T. (1991). Questionnaire for learners. Tottori University, Japan.
Nyikos, M. (1990). Sex-related differences in adult language learning: socialization and memory factors. The Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 273-87.
Oh, J. (1992). Learning strategies used by university EFL students in Korea.
Language Teaching, 1, 3-53.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A.U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Russo, R. P., & Kupper, L.
(1985a). Learning strategy used by beginning and intermediate ESL student.
Language Learning 35, 21-46.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Russo, R. P., & Kupper, L.
(1985b). Learning strategy applications with students of English as a second
language. TESOL Quartly, 19, 582-584.
O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. L. (1990a). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. NY: Newbury House.
Oxford, R. L. (1990b). Styles, Strategies, and aptitude: Connections for language learning. In Parry & Stansfield 1990.
Oxford, R.L. (1993). A difference continue… Gender difference in second/ foreign language learning style and strategies. J. Sutherland(Eds.), Exploring Gender. Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Oxford, R. & Burry-Stock, J. A. (1995). Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of the Strategy Inventory For Language Learning (SILL). System, 23 (1), 1-23.
Oxford, R., & Ehrman, M. (1993). Second language research on individual differences. Annual Review s of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), 188-205.
Oxford, R., & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables affecting choice of language learning strategy by university students. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 291-300.
Park, G. P. (1997). Language learning strategies and English proficiency in Korean university students. Foreign Language Annals, 30, 211-21.
Paris, S. G., Lipson, M. T., & Wixong, K. K. (1983). Becoming a strategies reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 293-316.
Peacock, M., & Ho, B. (2003). Student language learning strategies across eight disciplines. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13, 179-200.
Peng, I.-N. (2001). EFL motivation and Strategy Use among Taiwanese Senior High
School Learner. National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, R.O.C.
Pennycook, A. (1997). Cultural alternatives and autonomy. In Benson, Phil& Peter Voller (Eds.) 25-53.
Politzer, R. L. & McGroarty, M. (1985). An exploratory study of learning behaviors and their relationship to gains in linguistic and communicative competence. TESOL Quarterly, 19(1), 103-123.
Prokop, M. (1989). Learning strategies for second language users: An analytical approach with case studies. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Purpura, J. E. (1997). An analysis of the relationships between test talkers’ cognitive and metacognitive strategy use and second language test performance. Language Learning, 47, 289-325.
Rao, Z. (2006). Understanding Chinese students’ use of clangauge learning strategies from cultural and educational perspectives. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 27(6), 491-508.
Reid, J. M. (1995). Learning styles in the ESL/ EFL classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Reinert, H. (1976). One picture is worth a thousand worlds? Not necessarily. Modern
Language Journal, 60, 160-168.
Riazi, A., & Rahimi, M. (2005). Iranian EFL learners’ Pattern of Language Learning Strategy Use. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 2(1), 103-129.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the “what good language learner” can teach us. TESOL
Quarterly, 9, 41-51.
Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 2, 117-131.
Rubin, J. (1987). Learner strategies: theoretical assumptions, research history and typology. In A. L. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning. Englewood Cliffs: NJ: Prentice Hall International.
Rubin, J., & Thompson, I. (1982). How to be a more successful language learner.
Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Schmidt, R. (2001). "Attention." In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp.3-32). Cambridge University Press.
Shamis, W. A. (2003). Language learning strategy use in Palestine, TESL-EJ, 7(2), 20-33.
Sheorey, R. (1999). An examination of language learning strategy use in the setting of an indigenized variety of English. System, 27, 173-190.
Stern, H. H. (1975). What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 304-318.
Sternberg, R. J. (1995). Styles of thinking and learning. Language Testing, 12(3), 265-291.
Sy, B. M. (1994). Sex differences and language learning strategies. Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China, 19-51. Taipei: The Crane publishing Co.
Teng, H. C. (1999). A study on English learning strategies used by students at Technology University (科技大學學生英語學習策略之探究) Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 639-644). Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.
Tseng, C.S. (2001). Language learners’ preference in language learning strategy: Focus on personality differences. Master’s thesis, National Changhua Normal University. Taiwan, R.O.C.
Tran, T. V. (1988). Sex differences in English language acculturation and learning strategies among Vietnamese adults age 40 and over in the United States. Sex Roles, 19, 747-758.
Tuan, H. S., & Hsu, C. F. (1996). Language proficiency as a variable influencing language learning strategy choice. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on English Teaching. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.
Vann, R. J. & Abraham, R.G. (1990). Strategies of unsuccessful language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 177-198.
Watson-Raston, D. I. (2002). Teaching in Australian classrooms: Issues influencing adult East Asian student. Teacher Development, 6(2), 289-304.
Wen, Q. F., & Johnson, R. K. (1997). L2 learner variables and English achievement: A study of tertiary-level English majors in China, Applied Linguistics, 18, 27-48.
Wenden, A. (1987b). How to be a successful language learner: insights and prescriptions from L2 learners. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall International.
Wenden, A. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents.
Wharton, G. (2000). Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learners in Singapore. Language Learning, 50, 203-243.
White, C. J. (1989). Negotiating communicative language learning in a traditional setting. ETL Journal, 1 (43),3
White, C. (1993). Metacognitive, cognitive, social and affective strategy use in foreign language learning: a comparative study. Unpublished PhD thesis. Massey University.
Yang, N. D. (1992), Data on students in an intensive EFL program in Taipei. Unpublished manuscript. National Taiwan University.
Yang, N. D. (1994). An investigation of Taiwanese college students’ use of English learning Strategies. Research report, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
Yang, N. D. (1994). A study of factors affecting college EFL students’ use of learning strategies. Proceeding of the Eleventh Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China. 53-82. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.
Yang, N. D. (1996). Effective-awareness-rising in language learning strategy instruction. In R.L. Oxford (Ed.), L.L.S. around the world: Cross-cultural perspective 205-210. Honoluu: University at Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
Yang, S.C. (1991). A study of relationship among learning strategy, learning styles and English aptitude in senior high schools. Master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University Normal, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Yang, S. C. (2000). A relationship study of English learning strategies, learning styles and English proficiency. Proceedings of the National Science Council, Republic of China: Humanities and Social Science, 10 (1), 35-59. Taipei: National Science Council.
Yule, G., & Tarone, E. (1990). Eliciting the performance of strategic competence. In Scarcella, Andersen, & Karshen.
Yutaka, T. (1997). The review of studies in related to language learning strategies. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED404857)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔