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研究生:張雅芬
研究生(外文):Ya-Fen Chang
論文名稱:如何運用訊息包裝與時間距離影響健康行為的推廣
論文名稱(外文):Influences of Message Framing and Temporal Distance on Healthcare Behavior Promotion
指導教授:張純端張純端引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Tuan Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄大學
系所名稱:經濟管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:訊息包裝時間距離健康行為屬性廣告效果
外文關鍵詞:message framingtemporal distancenature of healthcare behavioradvertising effectiveness
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訊息包裝效果(framing effects)是一種以不同呈現方式來表達相同資訊的包裝方式,這種方式對於人們決策過程有深刻的影響,過去相關的研究結果仍出現矛盾或不一致情況,本研究將根據先前的文獻進行更深入的延伸與探討,利用訊息包裝的呈現方式和人們對於風險接近的時間遠近概念,進一步了解何種情況下健康保健行為的推廣是最有效。本研究選擇「肝病」作為健康議題,透過實驗設計(experimental design)來檢視健康議題的訊息包裝(message framing)、時間距離(temporal distance)的遠近所呈現之風險和健康保健行為的屬性(nature of behavior)對於保健廣告效果的影響,實驗為4×2×2的三因子設計,分別為訊息包裝(利得:得到渴望的結果vs.避免不想要的結果; 利失:得到不想要的結果vs.避免渴望的結果)、健康保健行為(預防行為vs.發現行為)、呈現風險的時間距離(較近的未來會發生vs.較遠的未來會發生),共分為16組實驗情境,研究對象來自高雄大學460位大學部學生,應用多變量分析(例如: 變異數分析及複迴歸分析)進行驗證與分析。研究結果顯示,以「利失」為包裝方式對於推廣發現行為是比較有效,另外,當訊息包裝健康風險為較遠的時間距離時,推廣發現行為比預防行為來的有效果,更重要的是當訊息包裝為「利得」搭配健康風險呈現較遠距離的方式時,推廣發現行為比較有效。本研究之結果除了擴展延伸訊息包裝的理論基礎,也同時提供社會行銷人員在實務面執行健康保健提倡時,一個重要參考依據。
“Framing effects” have become a generic term to represent the idea that holding information itself equivalent, the decision-making context (i.e., how the message is framed) can have a profound effect on consumer choice behavior. Past research yields contradictory or inconsistent findings. This study examines the most appropriate message framing for healthcare communication on hepatitis. An experimental study is conducted to examine the moderating effects of nature of healthcare behavior and temporal distance on the processing of framed advertising messages. The experiment in a 4 (message framing: attain, desirable vs. not attain, undesirable vs. attain, undesirable vs. not attain, desirable) x 2 (nature of healthcare behavior: prevention vs. detection) x 2 (temporal distance: near future vs. distant future) factorial design is developed. The first two types of message framing are categorized as gain framing, and the latter ones are labeled as loss framing. A series of analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to test the proposed hypotheses. Results of the experiment indicate that loss-framed messages are found more effective in promoting detection behavior. In addition, the messages framing health risk as distant future are more effective in promoting detection behavior than prevention behavior. More importantly, a three-way interaction is observed. When promoting detection behavior, the gain-framed messages with the health risk presented in distant future are more effective than the loss-framed messages. These findings should be incorporated into an existing health-care marketing program or media campaign to increase its effectiveness.
Chapter One:An Introduction 1
1.1. Preamble 1
1.2. Research Background 1
1.3. Research Purpose and Questions 4
1.4. Structure of the Thesis 5

Chapter Two:Literature Review 7
2.1. Preamble 7
2.2. Message Framing and Applications in Health Promotion 7
2.2.1. Prospect Theory and Framing Effects 7
2.2.2. Taxonomy of Framing Effects 8
2.2.3. Framing Effects in Health Promotion 10
2.3. Goal Framing in Promoting Healthcare Behavior 12
2.3.1. Taxonomy of Goal Framing in Health-Related Messages 12
2.3.2. Goal Framing in Prevention and Detection Health Behavior 13
2.4. Applications of Temporal Distance in Consumer Research 14
2.4.1. Construl Level Theory and Temporal Distance 14
2.4.2. Effects of Temporal Distance on Judgments and Choice 17
2.5. Individual Differences in Perceived Health Consciousness and Health Status 18
2.5.1. Mediating Role of Health Consciousness on Message Framing Effects 18
2.5.2. Mediating Role of Perceived Health Status on Message Framing 19
2.6. Concluding Remarks 20

Chapter Three:Research Design and Method 21
3.1. Preamble 21
3.2. Research Hypotheses 22
3.2.1. Applications of Framing Effects to Nature of Healthcare Behavior 22
3.2.2. Moderating Role of Temporal Distance on Framing Effects 22
3.2.3. Interaction of Temporal Distance and Nature of Healthcare Behavior on Advertising Effectiveness 24
3.2.4. Interrelationship among Message Framing, Temporal Distance, and Nature of Healthcare Behavior on Advertising Effectiveness 25
3.3. Research Design 27
3.4. Experimental Design 28
3.4.1. Overview 28
3.4.2. Participants 28
3.4.3. Independent Variables 28
3.4.3.1. Manipulation on Message Framing 29
3.4.3.2. Manipulation on Nature of Healthcare Behavior 29
3.4.3.3. Manipulation on Temporal Distance 29
3.4.4. Advertisements 29
3.4.5. Administration Procedures 32
3.5. Measures 32
3.5.1. Pre-Manipulation Measures 32
3.5.2. Post-Manipulation Measures 33
3.6. Concluding Remarks 35

Chapter Four:Data Analysis and Results 36
4.1. Preamble 36
4.2. Background Information 36
4.2.1. Perceived Health Status 37
4.2.2. Health Consciousness 37
4.2.3. History of Liver Disease 38
4.2.4. Sources of Healthcare Information 39
4.2.5. Pre-Intervention Perceived Risk and Severity of Liver Disease 39
4.3. Checking the Design 41
4.3.1. Manipulation Checks 41
4.3.2. Reliability Analysis 42
4.3.3. Preliminary Analysis 42
4.3.4. Cognitive Responses to the Leaflet 43
4.4. Hypothesis Testing 43
4.4.1. Message Framing in Healthcare Behavior 46
4.4.2. Moderating Role of Temporal Distance on Message Framing 47
4.4.3. Interaction of Temporal Distance and Nature of Healthcare Behavior 48
4.4.4. Interrelationship among Message Framing, Temporal Distance, and Nature of Healthcare Behavior on Advertising Effectiveness 49
4.4.5. Mediating Roles of Individual Differences on Advertising….. 51
4.5. Results of Hypotheses 53
4.6. Concluding Remarks 56

Chapter Five:Conclusions 57
5.1. Preamble 57
5.2. General Discussions 57
5.3. Limitations of the Research 61
5.3.1. Laboratory Setting 61
5.3.2. Different Formats of Temporal Distance 61
5.3.3. Healthcare Issues 62
5.4. Contributions to Knowledge 62
5.4.1. Theoretical Contributions 62
5.4.2. Managerial Contributions 63
5.5. Proposals for Future Research 64
5.5.1. Level of Difficulty of Nature of Healthcare Behavior 65
5.5.2. Dimensions of Psychological Distance 65
5.5.3. Personal and Family Health History 65
5.6. Conclusion 66

References 68

Appendix A:Sixteen Versions of Leaflet 72

Appendix B:Questionnaire 73
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