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研究生:胡賢德
研究生(外文):Hsien-Te Hu
論文名稱:不同品種山藥澱粉理化性質之研究-以陽明山地區為例
論文名稱(外文):The Physicochemical Properties of Different Yam Starches:A Study of Yams at Yangmingshan
指導教授:林素一林素一引用關係
指導教授(外文):Su-Yi Lin Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:生活應用科學研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:生活應用科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:山藥澱粉理化性質陽明山成糊行為
外文關鍵詞:yamstarchphysicochemical propertiesYangMingShanpasting behaviors
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山藥為薯蓣科薯蓣屬多年生蔓生性植物,自古以來是上品的補虛保健食品及生藥材,為可供食用、藥用和保健用之重要塊莖作物。本研究以栽種於陽明山地區的台農一號(D.alata L.)、台農二號(D.alata L.)、基隆山藥(D.japonic var.)、陽明山原生種(D.alata L.)、名間長紅(D.alata L. var.)等五種山藥品種為實驗材料,以粉末化製備流程取得山藥澱粉,去探討不同品種山藥澱粉的一般成份分析、理化性質與成糊行為之間的相關差異性。研究顯示各山藥澱粉的顆粒外型大都為橢圓形或混有圓形或三角形顆粒。由X-ray繞射圖譜顯示,除了D.japonic var.種的基隆山藥是屬於結晶性較強的C型結晶,其他品種的山藥都是屬於結晶性較弱的B型結晶。在成分分析中,D.alata L.種的山藥有較低的粗蛋白、粗纖維和灰份,表示其擁有較高的澱粉含量。在直鏈澱粉含量方面大約介於23.9~32.22%之間,在磷含量方面則大約介於205.33~498.00ppm之間,而且同品種D.alata L.山藥澱粉間的直鏈澱粉含量與磷含量的差異很大。
因為D.alata L.種的山藥澱粉與D.japonic var.種及D.alata L. var.種的山藥澱粉的結晶性不同、直鏈澱粉含量以及磷含量的差異,導致溶解度、膨潤力、成糊行為以及質地分析有所不同。實驗顯示D.alata L.種的山藥澱粉較其他種澱粉有較高的溶解度與膨潤力、較低的糊化溫度與熱焓質以及較高的硬度、膠質感與咀嚼性、較差的儲存安定性。
Yam is a perennial vine plant. It has been the healthy food and raw material for medicine since the old times. It can be the important tuber crop for food, medicine, and health. This research wants to regard five cultivars of yams, Tainung No.1(D.alata L.),Tainung No.2(D.alata L.),Keelung yam(D.japonic var.), YangMingShan Native(D.alata L.), MinJianChangHong(D.alata L. var.)planting in the area of YangMingShan as test materials. The starch of yam was extracted and the difference in the general contents、physicochemical properties and pasting behaviors among different cultivars of yam starch was studied. Research shows the particle size and shapes of yam starch mostly for the ellipse or mixed with the round or triangular. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the other cultivars of yams were B-type, except Keelung yam was C-type. The varieties of D.alata L. showed a low content of crude protein, fiber and ash, and high starch should be presented. The amylose contents of five yam starches were ranged between 23.9 to 32.22% and the phosphate contents of five yam starches were ranged between 205.33 to 498.00 ppm. The amylose and phosphate contents of the same D.alata L. yam starches were different.
Because the crystallization, amylose and phosphate contents of yam starches among D.alata L., D.japonic var. and D.alata L. var. were different, cause that the solubility、swelling power、pasting behaviors and texture became to be different. The physicochemical properties showed that D.alata L. starch had higher solubility, swelling power, hardness, gumminess, chewiness and lower gelatinization temperature , enthalpy. The D.alata L. starch had bad level of storage.
中文摘要...........................................i
英文摘要.........................................iii
目次...............................................v
表次..............................................ix
圖次...............................................x
壹、前言...........................................1
貳、文獻探討.......................................3
一、山藥的介紹......................................3
(一)山藥的品種與分佈............................3
(二)山藥的化學組成與營養成分....................6
(三)山藥的藥效與保健功用........................8
(四)山藥澱粉的特性.............................11
(五)山藥的加工.................................13
二、澱粉顆粒的組成.................................14
(一)澱粉顆粒的結構.............................14
(二)直鏈澱粉的結構.............................19
(三)支鏈澱粉的結構.............................20
三、澱粉的糊化行為.................................22
四、澱粉的回凝行為.................................24
五、澱粉的凝膠.....................................26
參、實驗架構......................................27
肆、材料與實驗方法...............................28
一、材料...........................................28
二、實驗方法.......................................28
(一)山藥澱粉之分離.............................28
(二)成分分析...................................30
1.基本成分分析...............................30
2. 磷含量測定................................32
3.直鏈澱粉含量測定...........................33
4.澱粉破損率.................................34
(三)理化性質分析...............................35
1. X-射線繞射分析............................35
2.顯微鏡觀察.................................35
3.透明度.....................................36
4.膨潤力與溶解度測定.........................37
5.凝膠延展性.................................37
6.連續糊化黏度測定...........................38
7.示差掃描熱分析測定.........................38
8.回凝熱焓之測定.............................39
9.質地分析...................................40
10.統計分析..................................41
伍、結果與討論....................................42
一、澱粉顆粒外觀分析...............................42
二、成分分析 ......................................48
(一)基本成分分析與澱粉破損率...................48
(二)直鏈澱粉含量...............................52
(三)、磷含量....................................52三、理化性質分析...................................55
(一)凝膠延展性.................................55
(二)X-ray繞射分析..............................56
(三)溶解度與膨潤力.............................56
(四)透明度.....................................61
(五)糊化性質分析...............................63
1.以示差掃描熱分析儀分析山藥澱粉的糊化行為...63
2.以快速黏度測定儀分析山藥澱粉的糊化行為.....65
3.以掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察山藥澱粉的糊化行為...70
(六)回凝性質分析..............................76
1.以示差掃描熱分析儀分析山藥澱粉的回凝行為...76
(七)凝膠性質分析..............................76
1.以物性測定儀分析凝膠的質地.................79
2.以掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察凝膠的質地...........80
陸、結論..........................................86
柒、參考文獻......................................89
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