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研究生:吳志宇
研究生(外文):Tse-yue Wu
論文名稱:以伽利略的反悔類比布萊希特從權威中求生
論文名稱(外文):An Analogy between Galileo's RecantationsAnd Brecht's Escaping from the Authority
指導教授:楊萬運楊萬運引用關係
指導教授(外文):Margaret Yang Mar
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:英國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:206
中文關鍵詞:布萊希特伽利略
外文關鍵詞:Bertolt BrechtLife of GalileoAlienation
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摘要
從一九三八到一九五五年之間德國劇作家及詩人布萊希特分別與他人合作或獨自創作了《伽利略》的三個版本。分別是一九三八年的丹麥版、一九四六年的美國版以及一九五六年的柏林版。三個版本的創作恰好發生在他人生中的幾個重要轉捩點。本論文的上半部試圖從研究三個版本的《伽利略》過程當中探討布萊希特與政治威權的關係。
第一章在前兩節中簡短的介紹歷史中的伽利略以及布萊希特的生平。第三節則針對布萊希特劇作理論(包括離異主義,史詩劇場)做分析。第四節則介紹馬克思主義當中的唯物辯證對布萊希特作品的影響。
第二章的第一節介紹布萊希特在一九三三年,由於受到希特勒與他所代表的納粹黨的打壓,被迫帶著家人展開多年的流亡生涯。並且在這樣的情況之下創作了丹麥版的《伽利略》。第二節則進入劇本,試圖分析伽利略這個角色與威權的關係,以及他在劇中所作的決定造成的影響。
第三章的第一節介紹布萊希特流亡到美國後,試圖重振自己的舞台,並且與英國流亡演員查爾思勞頓一同合作創造美國版的《伽利略》。創作的同時,布萊希特得知美國政府在二次大戰中日本投下了史上第一枚原子彈,使他感到強大的震撼並且促使他重新定義科學家在社會中需要扮演的角色。第三章的第二節開始比較丹麥版與美國版中,劇情以及伽利略角色的變化。
第四章的第一節介紹布萊希特在被美國政治打壓的情況下離開美國, 回到當時實施共產主義的東德發展。由於他的作品深受馬克思主義影響並且同時宣揚共產主義的理念,他與執政者的關係甚為密切,社會中的地位也扶搖直上。他在這種情況下創作了《伽利略》的柏林版。第四章的第二節探討柏林版《伽利略》受到的改變與新加入的背叛階級觀念如何與其他兩個版本做出區隔。
第五章是結論,並試圖整合前幾章節的概念用來闡明布萊希特與政治權威的關係,以及《伽利略》是如何受到這層關係的影響。
為了能夠讓更多讀者深入了解各版本間的差異,本論文下半部收錄丹麥版《伽利略》的英文翻譯。由於Desmond Vesey翻譯的英文丹麥版在1966年已停版,目前相當難取得。且Suhrkamp出版社於2003年出版的Brecht’s Werke: Grosse Kommentierte Berliner und Frankfurter Ausgabe只印有德文的丹麥版,因而在論文中附上自行翻譯的英文版。
Over a span of seventeen years, from 1938 to 1955, Bertolt Brecht used the life of the historical figure, Galileo Galilei, as the background to create the three versions of the Galileo play. Part One of this thesis attempts to explore the three versions and their changes, and how new insights into Brecht’s life as a politically orientated dramatist have been gained under each different authority, which turn the plays towards new directions.
Part One, Chapter One introduces the biographical backgrounds of Galileo Galilei and Bertolt Brecht. Brecht’s dramatic theory, which includes the theory of epic theater, alienation and his strong Marxist’s influence, will be explored.
Chapter Two addresses the first version of Galileo written in 1938, during Brecht’s exile in Denmark. Galileo is presented as a hero of society, the modern Prometheus who had an ability to turn night as bright as day, for the people. The recantation by Galileo in this version was seen by Brecht as a clever move to outsmart the authorities.
Chapter Three regards the American version of the play. It was written in the USA in 1945, in collaboration with the English actor Charles Laughton. The focus of the play turns to the scientist’s roles in and responsibilities to society. It is widely known that when writing the American version, Brecht was greatly influenced by the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The “new” Galileo’s role as a scientist was to ensure that his research was conducted for the sake of humanity, instead of research just for the sake of research.
Chapter Four introduces the third version of Galileo, which was written in 1955 in Berlin. The last and final version of the play deals with Galileo’s class betrayal. In the Berlin version, Galileo is no longer presented as the hero, but as the villain. Galileo recants his teachings out of cowardice, not to outwit the authorities that he can continue with his research in secrecy. Galileo’s crime lies in discovering the truth but keeping it from the people, which is regarded as a betrayal of his own class.
Chapter Five concludes this thesis, and shows how Brecht’s changes in life have led to the drastic change of directions in the Galileo plays, and how Brecht’s relations with different authorities have lead to transformations in the play.
Part Two contains a complete English translation of the Danish version. Since only a German copy was found, it is necessary to provide the reader with an English copy to enable better understanding of this thesis.
Part I Chapter One: Introduction
I. Brief Biography of Galileo Galilei 1
II. Brief Biography of Bertolt Brecht 8
III. Brecht’s Dramatic Techniques 13
IV. Marxism’s Influence on Brecht 20
Chapter Two: The European Exile and the Danish Version
I. Brecht’s Exile from Hitler’s Germany to Denmark 26
II. Galileo in the Danish Version 32
Chapter Three: The Atomic Bomb and the American Version
I. Brecht in the Unites States of America 41
II. A Changed Galileo in the American Version 47
Chapter Four: The Berlin Version and Brecht’s Returning Home
I. Brecht’s new status and a new Galileo 56
II. Galileo in the Berlin Version 61
Chapter Five: Conclusion 66
Works Cited 71
Bibliography 75
Part II Foreword 1
The Life of Galileo 1938 Berlin Version, translated by Tse-yue Wu 3
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