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研究生:吳孟純
研究生(外文):Meng-chun Wu
論文名稱:恆春半島四種陸蟹的幼蟲釋放
論文名稱(外文):Larval Release of Four Species of Land Crabs ( Decapoda: Brachyura ) from Hengchun Peninsula, Taiwan
指導教授:劉烘昌劉烘昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung-chang Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:生態學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/07/
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:釋幼行為中華沙蟹印痕仿相手蟹橙螯隱蟹小隱蟹釋幼時機
外文關鍵詞:larval release timingOcypode sinensisSesarmops impressumEpigrapsus notatusEpigrapsus polituslarval release behavior
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本研究係針對恆春半島產小隱蟹(Epigrapsus politus)、橙螯隱蟹(E. notatus)、印痕仿相手蟹(Sesarmops impressum)以及中華沙蟹(Ocypode sinensis)等四種陸蟹進行幼蟲釋放時機與行為之研究,並計算小隱蟹與中華沙蟹的繁殖力。四種陸蟹的幼蟲釋放均在夜間進行。隱蟹屬的釋幼時機為月節律,印痕仿相手蟹的釋幼時機為半月節律,中華沙蟹的釋幼節律與月亮周期、潮汐振幅周期以及滿潮水沒有關聯。
四種陸蟹的釋幼時機與潮汐振幅周期未呈現出顯著相關。小隱蟹於滿月後的第2-3天開始釋幼,持續6-7天,釋幼活動大多數是在高平潮前1小時進行,時間介於1900H至2200H之間,大部分於午夜前釋幼完畢。橙螯隱蟹於滿月後4-5天出現釋幼個體,持續4-5天後結束,釋幼時間大多數是在高平潮後的1小時進行,主要是在2100H至凌晨0400H之間,午夜過後釋幼的個體佔30%。印痕仿相手蟹於新月滿月當天即出現釋幼個體,持續4-6天,主要是在高平潮時進行釋幼,時間主要集中在1900H至2100H之間,釋幼時間會依隨著日落時間而提早發生。中華沙蟹主要是在日落後的2小時內釋幼,釋幼時間會隨日落時間提早而提前。推測陸蟹的釋幼時機,母蟹可能以自身安全為主,高過對幼體的保護。
小隱蟹與橙螯隱蟹的釋幼行為特殊,採身體側向迅速左右搖晃方式釋放幼蟲。中華沙蟹的釋幼是以左右螯將成熟幼體挖出並配合腹部前後搧動的方式完成。此三種陸蟹的特殊釋幼行為可能是因應大浪與地形所形成的適應現象。小隱蟹的繁殖力介於1,700~12,000隻,部分母蟹於繁殖季期間,會重覆抱卵,卵的發育期大約30天。中華沙蟹的繁殖力介於17,000~90,000隻,背甲寬大於28.5mm的母蟹,繁殖力有下降趨勢,研究期間,部分母蟹會重覆繁殖。
The aim of this study is to investigate the timing and behavior of larval release on four species of land crabs viz. Epigrapsus politus, E. notatus, Sesarmops impressum and Ocypode sinensis from Hengchun Peninsula, and to calculate the fecundity of E. politus and O. sinensis. The timing of larval release of these species occurred at night. In the genus Epigrapsus, the release timing followed the lunar rhythm. As for S. impressum, the pattern of larval release timing followed the semilunar rhythm. The rhythm of larval release by O. sinensis did not have any clear relationship with the lunar cycle, tidal amplitude cycle, and high tide. Furthermore, their larval release timing did not show the significant relativity with the tidal amplitude cycle.
The ovigerous females of E. politus started to release larvae 2-3 days after the full moon; lasting for 6-7 days. The peak of larval release timing fell an hour before high slack tide. Nearly all of the ovigerous females finished the larval release before midnight, with the peak period between 1900H and 2200H. For E. notatus, the ovigerous females release larvae 4-5 days after the full moon, and continued for the next 4-5 days. The larvae-release activity was mostly carried out an hour after high slack tide. The timing distributed from 2100H to 0400H and 30 percent of ovigerous females released their release after midnight. The ovigerous females of S. impressum started to release larvae just right on the days of the full moon and new moon, lasting for 4-6 days. They released the larvae during the high slack tide. Relative to light-dark cycle, the timing of the release mainly concentrated between 1900H and 2100H, and advanced with following the time of sunset. The larval release of O. sinensis occurred within 2 hours after the sunset time primarily. In addition, as the sunset time shifted forward, the release timing advanced accordingly as well. It was suggested that the adaptive significance of larval release timing by land crabs might highly correlate with the safety of females more than protection for larvae.
The behavior of larval release by E. politus and E. notatus were special, these crabs would shake the entire body laterally very quickly. For O. sinensis, they used their both chelae to dig the mature larvae out of the abdomen with fanning the abdomen back and forth simultaneously. These special behaviors of larval release might be concerned with adaptations for coping with the effect of high waves and landform. The number of hatched larvae carried by the females in E. politus varied between 1,700 and 12,000. Some females had the capacity in spawning twice during a reproductive season. The entire period of egg development was probably 30 days. For O. sinensis, the fecundity ranged between 17,000 and 90,000. While the carapace width of females was greater than 28.5 mm, there was a trend that the fecundity tended to decrease. During the study period, it was found that some females could reproduce twice as well.
中文摘要------------------------------------------------i
Abstract-----------------------------------------------ii
1.Introduction-----------------------------------------1
1.1 Definition, systematic, and distribution --------1
1.2 Land adaptation ----------------------------------2
1.3 Reproduction -----------------------------------4
1.3.1 Breeding periodicity -----------------------5
1.3.2 Copulation-----------------------------------5
1.3.3 Breeding migration---------------------------6
1.3.4 Larval release behavior ------------------------7
1.4 Timing of larval release---------------------------7
1.4.1 Larval release rhythm --------------------------8
1.4.2 Hierarchy --------------------------------------11
1.4.3 Control of larval release timing -----------12
1.4.4 The adaptive significance ------------------14
1.5 Species description--------------------------------15
1.5.1 Epigrapsus politus and E. notatu -------------15
1.5.2 Sesarmops impressum------------------------------17
1.5.3 Ocypode sinensis--------------------------------17
1.6 Purpose of the research --------------------------18
2. Materials and Methods-------------------------------19
2.1 Field site ----------------------------------------19
2.2 Observation timing ----------------------------19
2.3 Observation of larval release timing -------------20
2.4 Fecundity --------------------------------------20
2.5 Meteorological information-------------------------21
2.6 Data analysis ------------------------------------21
3. Results---------------------------------------------22
3.1 Species -------------------------------------------22
3.2 Timing of larval release --------------------------22
3.2.1 Epigrapsus politus ------------------------------22
3.2.2 Epigrapsus notatus-------------------------------23
3.2.3 Sesarmops impressum -----------------------------24
3.2.4 Ocypody sinensis---------------------------------25
3.3 Larval release behavior----------------------------27
3.3.1 Epigrapsus politus and E. notatus --------------27
3.3.2 Sesarmops impressum------------------------------28
3.3.3 Ocypode sinensis --------------------------------28
3.4 Fecundity------------------------------------------29
3.4.1 Epigrapsus politus -----------------------------29
3.4.2 Ocypode sinensis---------------------------------29
4. Discussion ----------------------------------------31
4.1The timing of larval release -----------------------31
4.1.1 Epigrapsus politus and E. notatu ---------------31
4.1.2 Sesarmops impressum ----------------------------33
4.1.3 Ocypode sinensis --------------------------------34
4.1.4 Hierarchy ---------------------------------------37
4.1.5 Adaptive significance ---------------------------38
4.2 Larval release behavior ---------------------------43
4.3 Fecundity ----------------------------------------46
4.4 Conclusion and Prospects -------------------------47

Reference ---------------------------------------------48
Contents of tables and figures-------------------------56
Tables-------------------------------------------------58
Figures------------------------------------------------61
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