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研究生:鄭育欣
研究生(外文):Yu-Hsin Cheng
論文名稱:從現實存在主義討論漢文化中罪的意象增進漢西文化間溝通的媒介
論文名稱(外文):THE CULPABILITY ACCORDING TO THE CHINESE HAN CULTURE SEEING FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EXISTENCIAL REALISM a contribution towards mutual understanding between chinese and occidental mentalities
指導教授:高德士高德士引用關係
指導教授(外文):José Ernesto Parra Cortés
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:西班牙語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/06/
畢業學年度:96
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:承負漢人社會組織孔教台灣民間信仰道教佛教和平憲章現實存在主義
外文關鍵詞:Confucianismsocial structure of the HanTaiwanese popular beliefsTaoismBuddhismLetter of PeaceCheng-Fuexistential realism
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和平憲章是由現實存在主義衍生出來的一篇文件,而現實存在主義則是由生於西班牙加泰隆省哲學家Alfredo Rubio所構思出來的。和平憲章的第一點即指出現代人不必對以前歷史上發生的不幸事件負責,因為我們之前並不存在。
也就是說,現在我雖然存在着,但是我的存在並不是上天安排好的,只要在我出生之前的人事物稍有變動,我現在就不存在了。
但是在分析漢文化中的宗教和民間信仰之後我們發現其實存在不存在的問題對於一個人有罪於否並不是那麼的重要,反而是社會組織在此一方面的影響比較明顯。在社會組織的線索下我們找到了「承負」—由社會組織本身衍伸出的思想。「承負」的意思就是一個人的罪並不一定就是由他自己所造成的而是他人所造成的,不管別人作這事時他存在或是不存在。如此一來,和平憲章在漢人社會的可應用性會因此減少嗎?會因此而使它的價值打折嗎?
這裡我們看見兩個不同文化—不管是在地理上或是意識形態上—在這快速現代化的世界中的接觸。寫作的期望之一乃是希望可以藉由此一論文來開啟這一領域的更多研究。
The first point of the Letter of Peace, a living document derived from the school of thought known as existential realism which is in turn the brainchild of the Catalonian philosopher Alfredo Rubio, argues that “the misdeeds done in History cannot be blamed on those living today, for the simple reason that we did not exist at that time.”
That is trying to say that although I do exist now, this existence is by no means guaranteed beforehand, a small change of events before my conception was suffice to wipe the possibilities of my existence off the map.
However, the results of the analyses on the religions and popular beliefs in the Han culture, to see if it’s also true in this part of the world that since we didn’t existe before this life thus we are free from being guilty of something that we didn’t do, tell us that the question lies not so much with existing or not in the time of the deeds being carried out, rather they point their fingers at the social structure. It is there that we come face to face with the transmigration of the guilts, in other words, that one’s guilts derive not necessarily from his own actions, but rather from that of the others, whether their times coincide or not. Therefore we may very well express our doubts about the global applicability of the Letter of Peace, will the Letter then be less useful for the people raised under the Han culture and in this way undermines its importance and value?
Here we see the encounter of two cultures –the Han and the Occidental– which are two different mentalities, both in the geographical and ideological sense, in the present age of the rapid modernization. Hence the investigation was carried out with the aim of opening a path for future studies regarding intercultural relations, un urgent issue in our time.
INTRODUCCIÓN 1
UNA NOTA SOBRE LA TRADUCCIÓN Y PALABRAS QUE NO PERTENECEN A LA LENGUA CASTELLANA 5
CAPÍTULO I – EL REALISMO EXISTENCIAL Y LA CARTA DE LA PAZ 6
1.1 – LA CONTINGENCIA, EL EVIDENTE “ESTOY-SIENDO-PUDIENDO-NO-HABER-SIDO” 6
1.2 – LA HUMILDAD ÓNTICA 11
1.3 – LA NO CULPABILIDAD 14
CAPÍTULO II – VIDA, MUERTE Y PREEXISTENCIA 19
2.1 – SEGÚN LA CULTURA HAN 19
2.2 – SEGÚN EL BUDISMO 21
2.3 – SEGÚN EL TAOÍSMO 34
2.4 – SEGÚN LAS CREENCIAS POPULARES TAIWANESAS 45
CAPÍTULO III – LA ESTRUCTURA SOCIAL HAN Y SU RELACIÓN CON EL FENÓMENO DE LA TRANSMIGRACIÓN DE LAS CULPAS 60
3.1 – EL SENTIDO DE LA VERGÜENZA Y EL UTILITARISMO 60
3.2 – LA SOCIEDAD DE SANGRE Y DEL LI 63
3.3 – CHENG-FU: LA TRANSMIGRACIÓN DE LAS CULPAS 69
CAPÍTULO CONCLUSIVO 75
GLOSARIO DE TÉRMINOS EN CHINO 85
APÉNDICE 89
1. CARTA DE LA PAZ: ARTÍCULO COMPLETO 89
2. BREVE HISTORIA DE LA CARTA DE LA PAZ 92
BIBLIOGRAFÍA 94
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