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研究生:張怡芳
研究生(外文):Yi-Fang Chang
論文名稱:讀者劇場在小學英語課堂上的應用
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Readers’ Theatre on Fourth Graders’ Foreign Language Anxiety and Oral Reading Fluency
指導教授:何德華何德華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Der-Hwa Victoria Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/01/
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:讀者劇場口語閱讀流利度外語學習焦慮小學英語教育
外文關鍵詞:oral reading fluencyReaders’ Theatreforeign language anxietyelementary English
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近年來,許多教育部門及學習機構積極的倡導兒童閱讀活動,期望在閱讀活動中能帶給學生更多元化的學習環境,因此,多元創新的教學方法在英語課室裡已經成為教學的設計重點。而許多國內外的研究更提出,讀者劇場是一具備方便性、 動機性的閱讀活動,更有許多研究發現,讀者劇場能增進學生的口語閱讀流利度及降低外語學習焦慮感;然而,在文獻回顧中發現,鮮少研究是針對英語為外語環境EFL(English as a foreign language) 來作深入的探討。因此,本研究採用質化分析法,進行六週的行動研究,以四年級國小學童為研究對象,透過教室觀察、訪談紀錄及教師省思等,來做質性資料之探討,並以量化資料為輔,透過外語學習焦慮問卷及口語閱讀流利度考試,了解學生在接受讀者劇場前後不同的閱讀能力及焦慮的表現,以達到三角驗證的佐證。而本文針對以下六點提出探討:一 、小學生在學習英語時是否感到焦慮, 二、讀者劇場是否能促進學生口語閱讀流利度,三、讀者劇場如何應用至EFL課室中,四、讀者劇場如何幫助學生降低焦慮感 ,五、學生對讀者劇場的看法,六、教師在讀者劇場所扮演的角色。主要結果顯示如下:

一、學生在學習外語時會有學習外語的焦慮感產生。
二、讀者劇場中最關鍵的練習,即是藉由反覆練習(repeated reading)和大聲朗誦(reading aloud) 來達到學生的口語閱讀流利度,在經過六週的行動研究之後, 學生在閱讀的表現上皆呈現顯著的進步。
三、根據讀者劇場的活動流程,在本研究依序進行了教師範讀(teacher modeled- reading)、 角色分配 (role assignment) 、反覆練習(repeated reading)和大聲朗誦(read aloud)、 小組練習和排練 (group practice and rehearsal)、 上台表演 (performance)及回饋時間(feedback)。
四、藉由小組合作、熟練的練習、增加語言的使用機會,學生在六週的讀者劇場活動之後,外語學習的焦慮感有顯著的降低。
五、國小學生認為讀者劇場增加了他們上台的表現機會,他們的英語能力也有明顯的進步,而小組合作的經驗也讓他們在閱讀活動中建立了自信心及學習動機。
六、有別於傳統的教師角色,教師在讀者劇場的角色是多元化的,包含了支持輔佐者(facilitator)、引導者(coach)、回饋者(feedback provider)等等。
綜合以上結論,本文針對在英語閱讀活動上 、學生的口語閱讀流利度表現及外
語學習焦慮等問題提出相關的建議及教學分享,期盼能在英語教學的閱讀學習領
域加入多元化的語言學習機會,以加深、加廣學生的學習視野。
The purpose of this 6-week action research was to explore the effects of Readers’ Theatre (RT) on fourth graders’ foreign language anxiety and oral reading fluency abilities in an elementary school EFL classroom. Six research questions are presented as follows:
1. Do EFL learners feel anxious in learning foreign language? If so, is there a significant difference in EFL fourth graders’ foreign language anxiety before and after the implementation of Readers’ Theatre?
2. Is there a significant difference in EFL fourth graders’ oral reading fluency before and after the implementation of Readers’ Theatre?
3. How is the implementation of Readers’ Theatre applied into an EFL classroom?
4. How does Readers’ Theatre help anxious students overcome anxiety?
5. What are participants’ perceptions toward Readers’ Theatre instructions?
6. What are the teacher’s roles in the implementation of Readers’ Theatre?
Thirty-one students were invited to participate in this study. Four kinds of instruments were used, including FLCAS (Foreign Language Communication Anxiety Scale) questionnaire, oral reading fluency test (ORFT), classroom observations and field notes. Before giving Readers’ Theatre instructions, the pre-FLCAS questionnaire and pre-ORFT were administrated to measure students’ previous anxiety and oral reading abilities. The teacher’s classroom observations and field notes were recorded to triangulate the statistical results from FLCAS and ORFT. Consequently, after Readers’ Theatre instructions, post-FLCAS and post-ORFT were used to compare and explain how students’ oral reading abilities improved and how they reduced their anxiety significantly. Furthermore, informal interviews were conducted to understand students’ perceptions toward RT.
Based on the findings, RT has successfully created an interesting and non-threatening environment for EFL learners to use the language. That is, students always need to be encouraged and provided with opportunities as much as possible. The major results are summarized as follows:
1. EFL learners felt anxious in a language classroom. However, after 6-week RT instructions, their anxiety lessened significantly.
2. With sufficient practice and opportunity in reading, students’ oral reading fluency improved significantly.
3. Followed by the RT procedures, the teacher’s modeled-reading, role assignment, repeated reading, reading aloud, rehearsal, performance and feedback time were applied to a fourth-grade elementary school EFL classroom.
4. Anxious learners gained more opportunity to use the language, which built up their sense of achievement and self-confidence.
5. From students’ responses of feedback sheets, they agreed that they have learned a lot from RT and were willing to try it again. Because of successful cooperative experience, students enjoyed presenting the story in front of the class and gaining senses of achievement.
6. Teacher’s roles are multiple. Depending on different learning situations, a teacher can be a facilitator, a coach or a feedback provider.

Finally, it is hoped that this study will provide more insightful ideas for educators and teachers. Regarding anxious learners, they especially need more encouragement and opportunity to use the language.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………..……………………………..i
CHINESE ABSTRACT …………………….………………………….ii
ABSTRACT ………………….…………..…………………………….iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………….………………..vi
LIST OF TABLES ……………………………….……………………..x
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………xi

CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION ……………….…...…....................1
1.1 Background ………………………………………………….………………1
1.2 Purpose of the study …………………………………………………………2
1.3 Significance of the study …………………………………………………….3
1.4 Definitions of Terms ………………………………………...……………….4

CHAPTER2 LITERATURE REVIEW …………...……………….7
2.1 Oral Reading Fluency ………………………….…………………...………. 7
2.1.1 Definitions of Fluency ………………………………………………………. 7
2.1.2 Importance of Oral Reading Fluency …...……………………….…… 9
2.1.3 Repeated Reading and Oral Reading Fluency ..………....…..………….9
2.1.4 Teacher’s Role in Building Fluency …...………………….…..….…...11
2.2 Readers Theatre ………………………..………..……………………….... 12
2.2.1 Introductions of Readers Theatre …...................……………….….…12
2.2.2 Steps of Readers Theatre ………………………………………….….13
2.2.3 Teacher’s Role in Readers Theatre………………………………..…..16
2.2.4 Benefits of Drama Elements in Readers Theatre………………..……17
2.2.5 How Readers Theatre Promotes Oral Reading Fluency …….….…....18
2.3 Foreign Language Anxiety ……………..……..…………………….….......20
2.3.1 Role of Anxiety ……………………………………….……………….21
2.3.2 How Readers Teacher Helps Struggling Students ……….……………22
2.3.3 Research on the Implementation of Readers’ Theatre in Elementary School EFL Classrooms in Taiwan…………………….………..……24
2.4 Research Questions…………………………………………………………26
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY………….……….......................28
3.1 Action Research ……………………………………………………………28
3.2 Setting and Participants …………………………………………………….29
3.2.1 Settings ……………………………………………………………….29
3.2.2 Participants ………………………………………………………......30
3.2.2.1 Students ………………………………………………………30
3.2.2.2 A Teacher ……………………………………………..………31
3.2.2.3 The Role of the Researcher ………………………………….32
3.3 Research Design ……………………………………………………………33
3.4 Instruments …………………………………………………………………38
3.4.1 Pr- & Post-FLCAS Questionnaire …………………………….…....38
3.4.2 Pre- & Post- Oral Reading Test……………………...……………….38
3.4.3 Readers Theatre Instructions ……...………………………………...39
3.4.3.1 Material Selection for Readers Theatre …………………..…40
3.4.3.2 Procedures of Reader’s Theatre Instructions ………...…...…40
3.4.4 Classroom Observation & Field Notes ………………..……………..44
3.4.5 Informal Interviews …………………………………………………..46
3.5 Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………….46

CHAPTER4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS………………..........48
4.1 Results and Discussions on FLCAS Questionnaires ………………….……49
4.1.1 Differences of Anxiety Performance between High- &
Low-Anxiety Group…….…………………………………………………..49
4.1.2 Discussions on FLCAS Questionnaires……….………………………51
4.2 Results and Discussions on Oral Reading Fluency Tests …………………..52
4.2.1 Fluency Differences between Pre- & Post-ORFT………………….……53
4.2.2 Accuracy Differences between Pre- & Post-ORFT………………..…....54
4.2.3 Discussions on ORFT……………………………………………………....57
4.3 Results and Discussions on Readers’ Theatre Instructions …………...……58
4.3.1 The Implementations of Readers’ Theatre in an EFL Elementary classroom……………………………………………………..…….…………59
a. Teacher’s Modeled-Reading …………………………….…….…….…....59
b. Role Assignment …………………………………………………….……...62
c. Read Aloud………………………………………………………………..….63
d. Repeated Reading & Rehearsal ..………………………………………...65
e. Performance ………………………………………………...………………68
f. Feedback Time ……………………………………………………………....71
4.3.2 How Readers’ Theatre helps anxious students…………………………….73
4.3.3 Students’ Perceptions toward Readers’ Theatre…………………………...74
4.3.4 Teacher’s Roles in Readers’ Theatre………………………………………..76
4.3.5 Discussions on Readers’ Theatre Instructions………………………….....78
a. Teacher’s Modeled-Reading ………………………………………………79
b. Repeated Reading & Performance……………………………………….79
c. Cooperative Learning………………………………………………………81
d. Teacher’s Roles ………………………………………………………….82
4.4 Limitations of Readers’ Theatre………………………………………..…...83
CHAPTER5 CONCLUSIONS …....................................................86
5.1 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….86
5.1.1 The Implementations of Readers’ Theatre in an Elementary School EFL Classroom ………………………………………………………..86
5.2 Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………………...87
5.2.1 Students’ Improvement on ORFT……………………………………...88
5.2.2Decreasing Anxiety in an Elementary School EFL Classroom…………89
5.2.3 Classroom Management…………………………………………………….90
5.2.4 Self-Reflection………………………………………………………………..90
5.2.5 Follow-up Activity…………………………………………………………...92
5.3 Limitations of this Study……………………………………………………93
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study………………………………………………94

REFERENCES………………………………………………………...95

APPENDICES………………………………………………………...101
Appendix 1 (Oral Reading Fluency Test)…………………………………….101
Appendix 2 (FLCAS Questionnaire)………………………………………....102
Appendix 3 (FLCAS Questionnaire-Chinese Version)………………………104
Appendix 4 (Interview Questions)……………………………………… ......106
Appendix 5 (RT Script 1) ...…………………………………………….........107
Appendix 6 (RT Script 2)…………………………………………….............108
Appendix 7 (Feedback Sheet)………………………………………………..109
Appendix 8 (A Summary of the Results from Pre- & Post- FLCAS Questionnaires)………………………………………………….110
Appendix 9 (A Summary of the Result in Fluency from Pre- & Post-
ORFT)…………………………………………………………...111
Appendix 10 (A Summary of the Result in Accuracy from Pre- & Post-
ORFT)…………………………………………………………...112
Appendix 11 (Samples of Students’ Follow-up Activity) ……………………113
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