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研究生:黃筱方
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Fang Huang
論文名稱:大學生與教師對課堂活動的喜好及其與英語學習焦慮關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):University EFL Students'' and Their Teachers'' Preferences for In-class Activities and Their Relationships to the Students'' Foreign Language Anxiety
指導教授:周惠那周惠那引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huey-Nah Cindy Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/01/
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:192
中文關鍵詞:學生喜好教師喜好英語學習焦慮課堂活動
外文關鍵詞:in-class activitiesforeign language anxietyteachers&apos&apospreferencesstudents&apos&apospreferences
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本研究旨在探討大學生與教師對課堂活動的喜好及其與英語學習焦慮間的相關性,研究重點包含:(1) 學生與教師認為喜歡與不喜歡的課堂活動,以及最容易引起學生學習焦慮的活動,(2) 學生與教師對課堂活動喜好的差異及其與學生學習焦慮之關係,及(3) 學生的英語學習焦慮。本研究之對象為中部某大學266名修習英語口語訓練課的大一與大二學生,以及10位教授本課程的教師。資料收集採用問卷調查方式,邀請研究對象針對學生版和老師版問卷上所列之課堂活動及觀點,進行量化調查研究,以描述統計ヽ獨立樣本T考驗ヽ卡方考驗ヽ皮氏積差相關ヽ及逐步多元回歸分析等統計方法分析結果。
  研究結果發現如下:(一) 根據喜好程度,絕大多數學生偏好傳統的課堂活動,如:中文翻譯ヽ立即糾正學生錯誤等等,同時對一些溝通式教學活動,如:小組活動和節慶教學,學生也都抱持正面評價。然而,教師在英語口語訓練課堂中只偏好使用溝通式教學活動,其中「學生兩人一組練習對話」和「看圖說話」為教師最喜愛使用之課堂活動。(二) 大部分學生認為要求他們在一群人面前發言的活動最會引起他們的焦慮,例如:英語即席演說ヽ英語辯論和口頭報告;反之,透過小組方式進行的活動則明顯引起他們較少的學習焦慮。(三) 由學生的問卷結果分析得知,學生在口語訓練課中的整體英語焦慮處於中上程度,其中以「溝通恐懼」層面較高。(四) 研究結果顯示,學生與教師對課堂活動喜好的觀點上存有52.8%的顯著差異程度。經分析檢測後得知,此差異與學生英語學習焦慮間具有顯著關聯性。(五) 相關分析的結果指出學生的八項個人背景因素(包括:班上的英語表現ヽ整體英文能力ヽ學習動機ヽ信心程度ヽ用於複習或準備課程的時間ヽ出國經驗ヽ課堂間老師說英語的比例ヽ和課堂活動進行的方式)與他們的英語學習焦慮之間呈現顯著的相關性;而多元迴歸檢測則顯示學生的英語表現最能預測這些學生的學習焦慮。
本研究亦對大學口語訓練課程的教學者及課程設計者提出一些建議,例如:教師應去察覺並探索學生課堂活動的喜好及學習需求;在課堂活動的選用上,教師可讓學生同時參與溝通式及傳統式的教學活動,將此兩種教學方式做結合運用;再者,教師可採用較不易引起學生學習焦慮的課堂活動,如:小組活動來進行教學等等。本研究希望透過得到的結果及建議,讓學生的學習需求及活動喜好得到更多的注意,使其有助於英語教師提高教學技巧,進而精進課程發展,並使學生在低焦慮的語言學習環境中獲得最大之助益。
This study aimed to compare learners’ and their teachers’ preferences for in-class activities and examine the relationship between such preferences and the learners’ foreign language (FL) anxiety. Specifically, this study tried to: (a) identify in-class activities the students and the teachers like or dislike and those that are anxiety-provoking to the students, (b) investigate the relationships between the student-teacher preference conflicts and the students’ FL anxiety, and (c) examine the students’ FL anxiety.
Two hundred and sixty-six English-major freshmen and sophomores and ten teachers of the English Oral Training course at a university in central Taiwan participated in this study. Data were collected from two versions of the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, t test, chi-square test, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and the stepwise multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data.
The results of the study are summarized as follows. First, university EFL students generally ranked traditional activities, like the teacher’s translation and explicit corrective feedback, high but they also favored communicative practices, such as group work and festival teaching, while their teachers mainly preferred the use of communicative activities in the English Oral Training classes. The activity “paired conversation practice” turned out to be the teachers’ favorite activity, followed by the activity “picture viewing and talking”. Second, oral-oriented activities, including impromptus, debates, and oral presentations, were found to be anxiety-provoking to the learners, whereas group-oriented activities increased the possibility of producing less anxiety. Third, university EFL students in general perceived moderate to high FL anxiety with the highest level of communication apprehension in their oral classes. Fourth, a rate of 52.8% of mismatches between the learners’ and the teachers’ activity preferences was found and it was significantly related to the learners’ FL anxiety. Finally, eight background factors, containing general English performance, English proficiency, learning motivation, self-confidence, weekly time spent on studying the course work, prior experiences of going abroad, the teacher’s use of English, and the activity mode, were significantly correlated with the learners’ FL anxiety. Moreover, general English performance was revealed to be the best predictor of the students’ FL anxiety.
Several implications were suggested based on the findings of the study, such as the importance of teachers’ awareness and exploration of learners’ activity preferences and learning needs, the integrated use of communicative and traditional activities in oral classes, and the adoption of less anxiety-provoking activities, like group work in class. It is hoped that through this study, more attention can be drawn to learners’ preferences and needs to improve the curriculum development and to make learners benefit from low anxiety-provoking learning activities in the classroom.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………… ….... i
CHINESE ABSTRACT…………………………………...…… vii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………… ix
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………….. xi
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………xii
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………. xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………. 1
Background and Motivation of the Study………………………………………...... 1
Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………...... 4
Purpose and Research Questions of the Study…………………………………....... 5
Significance of the Study………………………………………………………......... 6
Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………….. 7
Organization of the Study………………………………………………………... 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………..10
Research on Anxiety and Foreign Language Learning………………………… 10
Perspectives on Anxiety…………………………………………………... 11
Trait Anxiety versus State Anxiety and Situation-specific Anxiety…. 11
Debilitating Anxiety versus Facilitating Anxiety………………….… 12
Foreign Language Anxiety………………………………………………... 13
The Concept of Foreign Language Anxiety…………………………. 13
The Components of Foreign Language Anxiety…………………….. 14
Communication Apprehension…………………………………. 14
Test Anxiety…………………………………………………….. 15
Fear of Negative Evaluation……………………………………. 15
Sources and Correlates of Foreign Language Anxiety……………………. 16
Self-esteem and Competitiveness……………………………………. 16
Learners’ Beliefs and Self-perceptions of Language Learning……… 17
Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes toward Language Teaching………… 18
Language Testing……………………………………………………..19
Other Sources Related to Foreign Language Anxiety……………….. 19
Research on the Perceptions of In-class Activities……………………………... 21
Students’ Preferences and Perceptions of In-class Activities…………...… 21
Mismatches between Learners’ and Teachers’ Preferences and
Perceptions of In-class Activities …………………………………… 24
In-class Activities and Anxiety…………………………………………………. 26
Summary……………………………………………………………………….. 28
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY………………………………………… 29
Participants……………………………………………………………………... 30
Characteristics of the Participants: Students…………….………………... 32
Characteristics of the Participants: Teachers………………………………34
Instruments……………………………………………………………………... 37
The Method of Translation………………………………………..………. 37
Student’s Version of the Questionnaire…………………………………… 39
Part 1: Background Questionnaire…………………...……………… 40
Part 2: Preferences and Anxiety towards In-class Activity Questionnaire (PAIAQ)…………… 41
The PAIAQ Used in the Pilot Study…………………………..... 41
Item Analysis for the PAIAQ…………………………………... 43
The PAIAQ Used in the Formal Study………………………..... 44
Part 3: The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS)… 45
The FLCAS Used in the Pilot Study…………………………… 47
Item Analysis for the FLCAS…………………………………... 47
The FLCAS Used in the Formal Study………………………… 48
Summary of the Student’s Version of the Questionnaire……………..49
Teacher’s Version of the Questionnaire…………………………………… 50
Part 1: Background Questionnaire…………………………………... 51
Part 2: Preference Level on In-class Activity Questionnaire
(PLIAQ)………………………………………...............……… 52
Summary of the Teacher’s Version of the Questionnaire……………. 53
Data Collection Procedures…………………………………………………….. 53
Data Analysis………………………………………………………………........ 54
Summary……………………………………………………………….............. 57
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS…………………………………………………….. 58
University EFL Students’ and Teachers’ Preferences for In-class Activities…... 58
The Students’ General Preferences for In-class Activities………………... 59
The Teachers’ General Preferences for In-class Activities………………... 66
University EFL Students’ Anxiety Levels on In-class Activities………………. 72
The Anxiety-provoking Activities………………………………………… 73
The Less Anxiety-provoking Activities…………………………………… 76
General Tendency of University EFL Students’ Anxiety Levels……………….. 79
Student-Teacher Preference Conflicts in In-class Activities and
the Association with FL Anxiety………………………………………….. 80
The Conflicts in Student-Teacher Preferences for In-class Activities……. 80
The Relationship between the Conflicts and FL Anxiety…………………. 87
Relationships between FL Anxiety and Background Factors…………………...89
Summary……………………………………………………………………….. 93
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND IMPLICATIONS............. 95
Summary of the Major Findings ………………………………………………. 95
Discussion…………………………………………………………………….... 96
University EFL Students’ and Their Teachers’ General In-class Activity Preferences in English Oral Classes…................................................. 97
Area of Similarities………………………………………….…..…... 99
Area of Differences………………………………………….……... 100
University EFL Students’ Anxiety Levels on In-class Activities in
English Oral Classes…………...….………………………………... 100
General Tendency of University EFL Students’ Anxiety Levels in
English Oral Classes……………....………………………………... 103
Student-Teacher Preference Conflicts in In-class Activities and the Association with FL Anxiety………… 104
The Relationships of University EFL Students’ Background Factors
and FL Anxiety in English Oral Classes……………..……………...105
Factors Negatively Correlating to Learners’ FL Anxiety…………... 105
Factors Positively Correlating to Learners’ FL Anxiety……………. 107
Predictive Factors of FL Anxiety in the Regression Model………... 108
Implications…………………………………………………………………… 109
Implications for Teachers………………………………………………... 109
Implications for Program Designers………………………………….….. 111
Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………. 112
Suggestions for Future Studies………………………………………………... 112
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………... 114

APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………… 125
APPENDIX A: Chinese Version of the Student Questionnaire Used in
the Formal Study…………………………………………….. 125
APPENDIX B: Chinese Version of the Teacher Questionnaire Used in
the Formal Study…………………………………………….. 133
APPENDIX C: English Version of the Student Questionnaire Used in
the Pilot Study……………………………………………….. 138
APPENDIX D: Chinese Version of the Student Questionnaire Used in
the Pilot Study……………………………………………….. 146
APPENDIX E: Correlation and Paired-samples T Test for the Items in
the English Questionnaire and the Ones in the Chinese Questionnaire in the Section of the Method of Translation…………………………………………………… 154
APPENDIX F: English Version of the Student Questionnaire Used in
the Formal Study…………………………………………….. 162
APPENDIX G: Item Analysis for the Second Part (PAIAQ) of the Pilot Questionnaire………………… 170
APPENDIX H: Item Analysis for the Third Part (FLCAS) of the Pilot Questionnaire……………… 173
APPENDIX I: Chinese Version of the Teacher Questionnaire Used in
the Pilot Study……………………………………………….. 174
APPENDIX J: English Version of the Teacher Questionnaire Used in
the Formal Study…………………………………………….. 177
APPENDIX K: Consent Form………………………………………………... 182

APPENDIX L: The Rank of the Students’ and the Teachers’ Preferences
for In-class Activities in the High-, Moderate-, and Low-preference Groups by Mean Scores…… 184
APPENDIX M: The Rank of the Students’ Anxiety Levels on In-class
Activities in the High- and Low-anxiety Groups by
Mean Scores……………………………………………….. ... 190
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