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研究生:王雅儒
研究生(外文):Ya-ru Wang
論文名稱:影響漢語語尾助詞「啊」之因素分析研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Effects of Selected Independent Variables on Mandarin Utterance-Final Particle A
指導教授:黃麗蓉黃麗蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-jung Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/03/
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:禮貌原則積極參與特性漢語語尾助詞「啊」
外文關鍵詞:speaker&apos&aposs attitudefacepolitenessregistergenderutterance-final particle Ademonstration of enthusiasminvolvementpacing of speechtopic of discoursegrammatical person
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本論文研究旨在探討持有積極參與特性的內在因素和一些外在因素對口語中漢語語尾助詞「啊」使用的影響。由於本文採用學者屈承熹(2002)的概念,他主張語尾助詞「啊」主要是傳達說話者在口語中積極參與的特性,所以本文所選擇會影響語尾助詞「啊」的因素都和「積極參與」此特性相關。本論文語料取自於自然的日常對話,且使用Goldvarb 3.0程式來分析語料。

結果顯示語尾助詞「啊」的使用不會受到「人稱」(grammatical person) 和「說話速度」(pacing of speech) 這兩個內在因素的影響。但是,語尾助詞「啊」卻會受到此內在因素「熱忱的傳達」 (demonstration of enthusiasm) 的影響。有些外在因素包括對話的主題 (topic of discourse)、說話者態度 (speaker’s attitude)、性別 (gender)、和語體 (register)─ 此指對話者間的關係,都會對語尾助詞「啊」造成影響。語尾助詞「啊」常出現於說話者必須提供更多相關訊息的情境裡和與個人相關的話題中。此外,說話者傾向以主觀的態度,且大都以女性為主,來使用語尾助詞「啊」。最後對話者之間的關係越親密者如:家人、親戚或好友,就更易於使用語尾助詞「啊」。這些影響語尾助詞「啊」的因素指出說話者為了達到禮貌原則,會藉由語尾助詞「啊」來傳達本身積極參與的態度。亦是為了不讓聽話者有損面子,且遵循中國禮貌四大原則之一「友善的態度」,所以說話者常使用語尾助詞「啊」來傳達本身的積極參與,進而展現出禮貌。值得注意的是,語尾助詞「啊」不再是個人文字上的隨意選擇或純粹的語氣助詞,而是一種語言上重要的使用。此使用主要是為了傳達自身積極參與的態度,以展現禮貌,進而使整個對話更加流暢。
A Study of the Effects of Selected Independent Variables on
Mandarin Utterance-Final Particle A
ABSTRACT
This research aims to examine the effect of internal factors, associated with the feature of involvement, and external factors on the use of the Mandarin utterance-final particle (UFP) a in spoken discourse. As this study adopted Chu’s (2002) notion that the UFP a is to express speaker’s involvement, the selected independent variables contributing to the occurrence of UFP a are argued to be related to the feature of involvement. The main data were collected from the recordings of spontaneous conversations and analyzed through the quantitative VARBRUL run of Goldvarb 3.0.

The result of the study shows that the application of UFP a is not constrained by the following internal factors: grammatical person of subject/topic and pacing of speech. On the contrary, the UFP a is strongly constrained by the internal factor, demonstration of enthusiasm, and several external factors including topic of discourse, speaker’s attitude, gender and register, referring to the relation between interlocutors. Specifically, the application of the UFP a favors free-offer of related materials/information, personal topics, speakers’ subjective attitude, female and the closer relation between interlocutors such as family and relatives, and close friends. The significance of these factors illustrates that speakers are apt to use the UFP a to show their involvement to achieve the goal of politeness. That is, to maintain one’s positive face and fulfill the Chinese notion ‘attitudinal warmth’, speakers tend to express their involvement and enthusiasm in communication. Significantly, the distribution of the UFP a is not regarded as an individual stylistic choice or modality particle, but rather as an important language use, signaling speaker’s involvement to achieve politeness and create an efficient communication.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page


CHINESE ABSTRACT.................................................................................... i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT.................................................................................... ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………… iii
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………… iv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS……………………………………………….. v
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………… 1
1.1 Background……………………………………………………............. 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study............................................................................. 4
1.3 Research Questions……………………………………………………. 6
1.4 Overview of the Study……………………………………………….. 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………… 7
2.1 Previous Research on the Functions of Utterance-Final Particle A........ 7
2.1.1 Chao (1968) and Dow (1983)………………………………….. 7
2.1.2 Li & Thompson (1981) and Chu (1998)……………………...... 8
2.1.3 Shie (1991)……………………………………………………... 10
2.1.4. Wu (2000).................................................................................. 12
2.1.5 Chu (2002)................................................................................... 14
2.2 The Notion of ‘Involvement’………………………………………….. 20
2.2.1 Research of Involvement in Discourse Analysis……………..... 20
2.2.1.1 Involvement and Linguistic Strategies……………….. 21
2.2.1.2 Tannen’s (1984) High-Involvement Style…………… 22
2.2.2 Research of Involvement in Sociolinguistics ………………….. 24
2.2.2.1 Involvement and Face………………………………... 24
2.2.2.2 Involvement and Chinese Notion of ‘Attitudinal Warmth’………………………………………………
26

2.2.3 Involvement and Grammatical Person of Subject/Topic………. 28
2.2.4 Involvement and Demonstration of Enthusiasm……………….. 29
2.2.5 Involvement and Speaker’s Attitude ……………....................... 30
2.2.6 Involvement and Register……………………………………… 31
2.2.7 Involvement and Gender……………………………………….. 33
2.3 Summary 33
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY…………………………………………… 35
3.1 Participants…………………………………………………………… 35
3.2 Procedure…………………………………………………………...... 35
3.3 Statistical Analysis: VARBRUL…………………………………….. 36
3.4 Coding of the Dependent Variable and Independent Variables……… 37
3.5 The Operational Definition of the Internal and External Factors……. 40
3.5.1 The Operation Definition of the Internal Factors…………… 40
3.5.1.1 Grammatical Person of Subject/Topic…………… 41
3.5.1.2 Pacing of Speech………………………………… 43
3.5.1.3 Demonstration of Enthusiasm……………………. 47
3.5.2 The Operational Definition of the External Factors………… 48
3.5.2.1 Topic of Discourse…………………………..…… 48
3.5.2.2 Speaker’s Attitude………………………………... 49
3.5.2.3 Register- Relation between Interlocutors ………... 51
3.6 Hypotheses…………………………………………………………… 52
3.7 Summary 53
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS……………………………………………………... 54
4.1 Initial VARBRUL Run……………………………………………..... 54
4.2 Recoding……………………………………………………………... 59
4.3 Second and Subsequent VARBRUL Runs………………………....... 60
4.4 Interpreting VARBRUL Weights…………………………………… 64
4.4.1 Internal Factors……………………………………………….. 65
4.4.1.1 Effect of Demonstration of Enthusiasm…………… 65
4.4.2 External Factors………………………………………………. 67
4.4.2.1 Effect of Topic of Discourse………………………... 67
4.4.2.2 Effect of Speaker’s Attitude………………………… 68
4.4.2.3 Effect of Register………………………………….... 68
4.4.2.4 Effect of Gender…………………………………….. 69
4.4.3. Factor Rank of Each Factor Group……………………………... 70
4.5 Summary 71
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION……………………………………………......... 72
5.1 Internal Factors………………………………………………………... 72
5.1.1 Demonstration of Enthusiasm………………………………….. 73
5.2 External Factors……………………………………………………….. 76
5.2.1 Topic of Discourse……………………………………………... 76
5.2.2 Speaker’s Attitude……………………………………………… 78
5.2.3 Register……………………………………………………….... 80
5.2.4 Gender………………………………………………………….. 81
5.3 Analysis of Factor Rank of Each Factor Group………………….......... 83
5.4 Limitations of the Study and Recommendations for Further Research.. 84
5.5 Contribution of the Study……………………………………………… 85
5.6 Summary 86
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION……………………………………………….. 87
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………….. 91
APPENDIX: Recorded Conversation Protocol………………………………..99
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