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研究生:許智凱
研究生(外文):Chi-Kai Hsu
論文名稱:台灣高職學生之英語過去式習得
論文名稱(外文):Acquisition of English Past Tense by Taiwanese Vocational High School Learners
指導教授:何德華何德華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Der-Hwa Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:過去式習得性別英語精通性語音顯著性
外文關鍵詞:phonetic saliency hierarchycorrelationVARBRULtoken frequencylexical strength
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研究學者已經對規則和不規則的構詞形式是如何在人類語言系統裡貯存和學習有很大的興趣。Bayley(1994) 提出假設,若是現在式和過去式的形式差異愈顯著,那麼該類動詞在過去式就愈需要標記。此外,Bybee(1985)指出,因為單字出現的頻率,所以,單字在貯存進入詞彙時,有不同變化程度的字彙強度。再者,Ellis(1994)指出,女性比男性還要更精通於第二語言之學習。然而,很少有研究關注高職學生在過去式寫作上所呈現英語過去式所習得的情況。在這個研究中,有兩百個高職夜校生參與這項研究。他們先參加英語時態的考試,而後再參加一個以過去式為必要的情境,書寫二十句英語句子。這個研究關注在過去式句子書寫之過去式標記的動詞形式和受語音顯著性,精通度,性別的影響。爾後發現英語時態的考試和過去式的句子書寫有高度關聯。而VARBRUL分析的結果也指出,語音顯著性,英語的精通度,和性別皆會學生在過去式句子書寫的表現。
Researchers have become increasingly interested in how regular and irregular morphological forms are stored, processed, and learned in the human language system. Bayley (1994) hypothesized that the more salient the difference between the present and past tense forms, the more likely a past-reference verb is to be marked. Furthermore, Bybee (1985) indicated that words entered in the lexicon have a variable degree of lexical strength because of token frequency. Besides, Ellis (1994) indicated that females might be better at second language learning than males. However, fewer studies have focused on acquisition of past tense writing of vocational high school students. Two hundred students from a night vocational department at a high school participated in this research. They took ‘English tense exams’ and then wrote twenty sentences under an ‘obligatory’ context. This study focused on verb forms of past tense marking in past tense sentence writing and the influence of phonetic saliency, proficiency and gender. The tense test was found to have high correlation with past tense sentence writing. The outcome of VARBRUL analysis indicates that phonetic saliency, lexical strength, proficiency and gender would influence students’ performance in past tense sentence writing.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ENGLISH ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………..i
CHINESE ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………..iv
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………..viii
LIST OF FIGURE…………………………………………………………………….ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION………………………………………………..1
1.1 Background of this study……………………………………………………1
1.2 Purpose of this study………………………………………………………...2
1.3 Definition of terms…………………………………………………………..5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REWVIEW………………………………………7
2.1 Inflectional morphology……………………………………………………..7
2.2 Past tense of regular and irregular verbs…………………………………….7
2.2.1 Past tense of regular verbs……………………………………………8
2.2.2 Past tense of irregular verbs……………………………………….....8
2.3 Three models of morphological storage and processing…………………….9
2.3.1 Dual-processing model………………………………………………10
2.3.2 The Connectionist model……………………………………………10
2.3.3 Network model……………………………………………………...11
2.3.4 Type frequency and productivity……………………………………13
2.3.5 Lexical strength…………………………………………………….14
2.4 Tense and aspect of Chinese and English in past tense……………………16
2.4.1 Past tense in English……………………………………………….16
2.4.2 Past tense and aspect in Chinese……………………………………17
2.5 Phonetic saliency in past tense marking……………………………….19
2.6 Second language acquisition……………………………………………21
2.6.1 Interlanguage variation………………………………………….22
2.6.2 Acquisition of English past tense marking……………………...24
2.6.3 Second language grammatical morpheme acquisition sequence. 27
2.7 External factors…………………………………………………………..28
2.7.1 Learner’s attitude…………………………………………………29
2.7.2 Gender…………………………………………………………….29
2.8 Introduction of VARBRUL……………………………………………….30
2.9 Summary of this chapter………………………………………………….31
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION……………33
3.1 Research questions………………………………………………………..33
3.2 Participants………………………………………………………………..34
3.3 Pilot test of English tense test……………………………………………..34
3.4 Data collection…………………………………………………………….35
3.5 Hypotheses………………………………………………………………...36
3.6 Statistical procedures……………………………………………………...38
3.7 Coding……………………………………………………………………..38
3.7.1 Coding dependent variable…………………………………………40
3.7.2 Coding independent variables………………………………………41
3.7.3 An example of coding………………………………………………41
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS……………………………………………………….42
4.1 An initial VARBRUL run………………………………………………….42
4.2 The relation between the English tense test and sentence writing…….......46
4.3 The outcome of verb forms of past tense marking in sentence writing……48
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION................................................................................49
5.1 The influence of phonetic saliency…………………………………………49
5.2 Acquisition of past tense in English………………………………………..55
5.3 The influence of the difference of tense in Chinese and English………….56
5.4 The influence of medium and low proficiency groups…………………….57
5.4.1 The medium proficiency group……………………………………57
5.4.2 The low proficiency group and overgeneralization………………..57
5.5 Fossilization……………………………………………………………….59
5.6 The influence of gender and proficiency………………………………….60
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION………………………………………………….. 64
6.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………64
6.2 Pedagogical implication…………………………………………………...66
6.3 Limitations of this study…………………………………………………..67
6.4 Suggestions for future study………………………………………………67
References…………………………………………………………………………..68
Appendix A: Tense test……………………………………………………………...73
Appendix B: The background of participants………………………………………..75
Appendix C: Examples of student past tense sentence writing………………….......81
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