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研究生:林書正
研究生(外文):Shu-cheng Lin
論文名稱:動態的英語學習動機-從九年級生的觀點探討
論文名稱(外文):Dynamic English Learning Motivation: From the Perspectives of Ninth Graders in an EFL Class
指導教授:周惠那周惠那引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huey-nah Cindy Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/07/
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:動態動機英文作為外語質化研究
外文關鍵詞:qualitative researchdynamic motivationEnglish as a foreign language
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研究者與老師都一致認為動機在語言學習的過程中扮演著極重要的角色。在漫長的語言學習裡,當學生有足夠學習動機時,他們較能夠不斷的付出努力。毫無疑問的,在持續學習語言的過程裡,學生的學習動機隨時間不斷的改變。然而,只有少數的研究將學習動機的時間因素放入考量。有鑒於此,為了探討英語學習動機的變動現象,本研究將探究學生在不同英語學習階段裡突出的學習動機種類並更進一步尋找使其學習動機變動的因素。
十二位九年級生及他們的老師參與此質化研究。資料蒐集法包含訪談、課室觀察、及課堂錄影。受訪學生各接受三次的訪談並由此來探究他們的英語學習動機以及使他們動機變動的因素。此外,研究者從與老師的訪談得知受訪學生的英語學習表現與英語學習態度。再者,經由課室觀察、課堂錄影、及研究者與受訪學生長時間的相處,此研究的效度提高。
由研究結果發現,學生的內在動機及外在動機於學習的初期階段較突出。而在七、八年級的學習階段,工具性動機影響力較大。到了九年級階段,被要求動機尤其佔有重要的地位。另外,在影響動機的因素中,課堂活動在學習的初期階段對學生的學習動機有很大的影響。老師的因素及學生課外接觸英文的因素在七、八年級的學習階段裡有較深遠的影響。考試壓力的因素在九年級的階段有最大的影響。
最後,此研究進一步討論出兩種英文學習動機變動模式:一、某些種類學習動機的增強或減弱。二、整體學習動機的增強或減弱。此外,在各種類的學習動機中,內在動機較能保持穩定。
Researchers, as well as teachers, have widely agreed that motivation plays a dominant role in language learning. With sufficient motivation, students are more likely to persist with efforts in the long-lasting and often tedious journey of acquiring and mastering a language. During the sustained language learning process, it should not come as a surprise that students frequently experience fluctuation in their learning motivation. Little attention, however, is paid to learning motivation from a temporal perspective. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the dynamic nature of learning motivation by investigating the dominant motivation types at different stages of English learning and identifying factors that influence motivation. Twelve high school students in ninth grade and their teacher in central Taiwan participated in this study.
The current study employed qualitative research methods. The data collection techniques were interviews, classroom observations, and videotaping. Three iterative interviews with the students were conducted to reveal their motivation and factors that interacted with it. Moreover, the students’ English performance and their attitudes towards learning English were reported by their teacher. In addition, classroom observations, videotaping, and prolonged engagement with the students were implemented to enhance the validity of the study.
The results of the data analyses showed that intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were more dominant at the pre-middle school stage of English learning. Instrumental motivation played an influential role at the stage of the seventh and eighth grades. During the ninth grade stage, required motivation was especially important. Additionally, a number of factors influencing the students’ motivation were unveiled. The factor of classroom activity was relatively influential at the pre-middle school stage. Two factors, the teacher who instructed the students and the students’ extracurricular experiences with English, had a noticeable effect on the students’ English learning at the seventh and eighth grades stage. Test stress was the overriding factor at the ninth grade stage.
Major findings of the study suggest the existence of motivational changes either in certain motivation types or in general levels of motivation. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation appeared to be relatively stable compared with other types of motivation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...........................................i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT..........................................ii
CHINESE ABSTRACT..........................................iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………...v
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………….ix
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………………....x
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………..……………...1
Background of the Study…………………………………………………………………1
Statement of the Problem.………………………………………………………………..3
Purpose of the Study...……………………………………………………………………5
Research Questions..…...………………………………………………………………...6
Significance of the Study...…………………………………………………………….....6
Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………………7
Organization of the Study………………………………………………………...............7
CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE…………………………………....…...9
Motivation to Learn a Second/Foreign Language………………………….….….….….9
Gardner’s Motivation Theory…………………………………………..…….…….9
Integrative Motive……………………………………………….…..….……10
Social-educational Model….…..……………………………………………..10
Attitude/Motivation Test Battery……………………………………...….…..11
Self-determination Theory in L2 Research………………………………………..12
The Educational Shift in L2 Motivation Research………….……………....……..15
Tremblay and Gardner’s Revised Model…………………….….…………...15
The Temporal Dimension of L2 Motivation…………………….………………...16
William and Burden’s Framework of L2 Motivation………………………...17
Ushioda’s Theoretical Framework of Motivation……………….………….........17
Dornyei and Otto’s Process Model of L2 Motivation……….…….……..…..18
Studies Concerning English Learning Motivation in Taiwan…………………………..19
Summary………………………………………………………………………………....20
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY…………………………………………….……….22
Background of the Setting………………………………………………………………22
Participants………………………………………………………………………...........23
The Students……………..……………………………………………………….. 23
The Teacher……………..………………………………………………………....26
Data Collection Techniques……...……………………………………………………...27
Interviews………………………………………………………………………….27
Classroom Observations……………..…………………………………………….28
Videotaping………………………………………………………………………..29
Data Collection Procedures……………………………………………………………..30
Data Analysis Procedures………………………………………………………………30
Validation of the Results………………………………………………………………..32
Prolonged Engagement…………..………………………………….…………….33
Role of the Researcher…....………...……………………………………………..34
Summary………………………………………………………………………………..35
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS……………………………………..…………...………….…37
Dominant Motivation Types at Different Stages of English Learning………………….37
Pre-middle School…………………………………………….…………………...37
Intrinsic Motivation…………………………………………………………..38
Extrinsic Motivation………………………………………………………….41
The Eighth and Seventh Grades…..……………………………………………….41
Instrumental Motivation……………………………………………………...42
English as an International Language…………………………………..42
Traveling Abroad………………………….…………………………….43
Getting a Good Job……………………….……………………………..44
The Ninth Grade...…………………………………………………………………46
Required Motivation…………………………………………………………46
Factors that Influence Motivation…...………………………………….........................48
Factors that Belong to the Three Learning Stages…………...…………………….49
Perceived English Competence…………………………................................50
Experiencing a Sense of Competence…………………………………..50
Lacking a Sense of Competence………………………………………..54
Classroom Learning Environment…………………………………………...57
Encouragement of Family Members…………………………………………60
Non-language-learning factor………………………………………………...62
The Dominant Factor at the Pre-middle School Stage…………………………….64
Classroom Activity…………………………………………………………...64
The Dominant Factors at the Seventh and Eighth Grades Stage…………………..65
Teacher Factor………………………………………………………………..65
Feedback……………………………………………………….………..66
Relationship with the Students………....……………………………….68
Extracurricular Experiences with English……………………………………69
English Media……………………………………….………………….70
Having Contact with Members of the Target Language Group………...72
The Dominant Factor at the Ninth Grade Stage…………………………………...74
Test Stress…………………………………………………………………….74
Summary…...………...…………………………………………………………….…...75

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS………..……..….………………..78
Discussion………………………………………………………………………………78
Dominant Motivation Types at Different Stages of English Learning…………….78
Factors that Influence Motivation…………………………………………………80
Perceived Competence……………………………………………………….80
Perceived Autonomy…………………………………………………………81
Teacher factor………………………………………………………………...83
Dynamic Motivation……………..………………………………………………..84
Pedagogical Implications………………………………………………………….........86
Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………………...90
Suggestions for Future Studies……………………………………………………….....91
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………...…..92
Appendix A Interview Questions for the Students…….…………...……………………...99
Appendix B Interview Questions for the Students (English Version)……………………100
Appendix C Interview Questions for the Teacher…………..……………………………101
Appendix D Interview Questions for the Teacher (English Version)…………………….102
Appendix E Quotations of Interview Transcripts in the Original Form………………….103
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