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研究生:蔡適鍼
研究生(外文):Shih-chen Tsai
論文名稱:奈米鈣之安全性評估及對人體生物利用率之影響
論文名稱(外文):Safety evulation and human bioavailability of nanoparticled calcium
指導教授:詹吟菁詹吟菁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yin-Ching Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:奈米鈣安姆試驗口服急毒性試驗LD50副甲狀腺素
外文關鍵詞:oral acute toxicitynanoparticled calciumAmes testparathyroid hormone (PTH)calciumLD50
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隨國民平均壽命不斷延長,骨質疏鬆(osteoporosis)的盛行率亦逐年增加。國內四次營養調查結果均顯示國人鈣質的平均攝取未達建議量,因此如何提供具有良好吸收率及生物利用率的鈣來源成為一個極重要的議題。利用奈米化處理的方法把鈣製成奈米粒子,由於表面積增加,也許可以提高其吸收率,強化有效成分的效用。惟經微細化處理後,其在食用上是否仍安全無虞,且在生物體上實際的利用率又是如何,則是須進一步加以探討的。因此本實驗之目的,首先以體外測試方式,評估微細化處理鈣複合劑之微生物安全性試驗;再進一步以體內測試方式,進行動物的口服急毒性試驗,評估對哺乳類動物急性毒性之影響,並探討人體對微細化處理鈣複合劑之鈣質生物利用率。試驗結果顯示,在微生物安全性方面,無論有無代謝酵素活性(S9)之存在下,奈米鈣和奈米複方鈣此二種測試樣品在1~5mg/plate劑量範圍下,對Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102及TA1535均不具微生物致突變性。在動物口服急毒性試驗結果發現,奈米化處理的鈣複合劑並不會對ICR小鼠的臟器外觀、顏色、血液及尿液生化值造成影響與變化,亦無鼠隻死亡之情形發生,顯示其LD50值大於5 g/kg body weight。而在人體試驗方面,未奈米複方鈣與奈米複方鈣在同一時間點上相互比較,各檢驗值雖然並未達到統計上之差異,但奈米複方鈣使血清中之鈣濃度及尿液中鈣與肌酸酐比值之上升速率較未奈米複方鈣快,並可有效抑制血清中副甲狀腺(PTH)之濃度。綜合上述試驗結果得知,奈米複方鈣未有致突變反應與口服急毒性,且比未奈米複方鈣有較高的鈣質生物利用效率。補充鈣質或許為防範骨質疏鬆之良好來源。
Following the extension of lifespan of Taiwanese, the prevalence of osteoporosis was also increased. According to the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, people consume considerably less than the current Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of calcium, thus it is a very important issue to find and provide a good calcium source with high absorption and bioavailability. The surface area and absorption rate of calcium may increase by nanolized. However, the safety evaluation and bioavailability of nanoparticled calcium are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and human bioavailability of nanoparticled calcium. The safety evaluation includes microbial mutagenesis (Ames test) and oral acute toxicity. In microbial mutagenesis assay (Ames test) the results showed either with or without rat liver enzyme mixture(S9), nanoparticled calcium and nanoparticled calcium complex has no mutagenicity effect toward all tester strains (Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535) in the concentration between 1~5mg/plate. In oral acute toxicity, after treated with nanoparticled calcium, there are no mice dead, no changes of histopathological organs, serum and urinary biochemistry in ICR mice, indicated that LD50 is more than 5 g/kg body weight. In human experiment, the testing variables were not significant different between nanoparticled calcium complex and non-nanoparticled calcium complex at the same time. But nanoparticled calcium complex had faster increasing serum calcium and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio than the non-nanoparticled calcium; furthermore, the effect of suppression PTH was more conspicuous than non-nanoparticled calcium. In summary, the nanoparticled calcium complex showed no mutagenicity and oral acute toxicity, and had higher calcium bioavailability than the non-nanolized calcium complex. It may be a good supplementation for the prevention of osteoporosis.
目 錄
中文摘要………………………………………I
英文摘要………………………………………II
目錄………………………………………IV
圖目錄………………………………………VII
表目錄………………………………………VIII


第一章 前言………………………………………1
第二章 文獻回顧………………………………………3
第一節 人體的骨骼………………………………………3
第二節 骨質疏鬆症之介紹………………………………4
第三節 骨質疏鬆的分級與診斷……………………………6
第四節 鈣對人體的重要性……………………………11
第五節 骨質疏鬆症與飲食之相關性……………………………15
第六節 奈米科技……………………………20
第七節 奈米定義……………………………21
第八節 安全性評估……………………………23
第三章 材料與方法……………………………27
第一節 材料簡介……………………………27
第二節 微生物安全性試驗……………………………28
一、 原理……………………………28
二、 菌株特性……………………………28
三、 菌株來源與取得……………………………29
四、 菌種保存與鑑定……………………………30
五、 實驗材料……………………………31
六、 實驗流程 ……………………………36
七、 統計分析……………………………37
第三節 動物急毒性試驗……………………………38
一、 實驗樣品 ……………………………38
二、 供試動物 ……………………………39
三、 實驗流程 ……………………………41
四、 統計分析 ……………………………42
第四節 人體試驗……………………………43
一、 實驗流程 ……………………………43
二、 研究對象 ……………………………44
三、 食用樣品之組成 ……………………………44
四、 實驗分組 ……………………………45
五、 實驗期間……………………………45
六、 測定項目……………………………45
七、 統計分析……………………………50
第四章 結果與討論……………………………53
第一節 微生物安全性試驗……………………………53
一、 毒性試驗……………………………53
二、 致突變性試驗……………………………60
第二節 動物及毒性試驗……………………………68
一、 體重及增重之變化……………………………68
二、 體內重要臟器之體重及肉眼病理觀察…………………68
三、 血液及尿液生化值分析……………………………72
第三節 人體試驗……………………………75
一、 基本資料分析……………………………75
二、 受試者飲食攝取紀錄分析……………………………77
三、 血液生化值分析……………………………80
四、 血液生化變化百分比值分析……………………………83
五、 尿液生化值分析……………………………88
六、 尿液生化變化百分比值分析……………………………90
第五章 結論……………………………95
第六章 參考文獻……………………………96
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