(18.204.227.34) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/19 08:54
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:於國華
研究生(外文):Guo-Hua Yu
論文名稱:苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大白鼠血糖及慢性發炎之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of momordica charantia L. extracts formula on blood glucose and chronic inflammation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
指導教授:詹恭巨詹恭巨引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kung-Chi Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/01/
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:糖尿病苦瓜萃取物複方禁食血糖vWF因子C反應蛋白
外文關鍵詞:Momordica charantia L. extracts formulaDiabetes MellitusC-reactive proteinvon Willebrand factorfasting glucose
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:751
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
糖尿病(Diabetes Mellitus,DM)常因體內血糖代謝異常而導致各種併發症之發生,若能及早防治對節約糖尿病相關之醫療成本有重大助益。文獻指出,單一給予苦瓜萃取物及酵母鉻、月見草油或山桑子萃取物,具有改善血糖、血脂或抗氧化力之功效。本研究將以Streptozotocin(STZ,45 mg/kg B.W.)誘發之糖尿病大鼠為模式,探討給予苦瓜萃取物複方對於糖尿病大鼠代謝異常及慢性發炎之影響。實驗將32隻雄性Wistar大鼠分為對照組及實驗組,實驗組又分為糖尿病(DM)組、DM給予苦瓜萃取物複方組(875 mg/kg B.W.)及DM給予高劑量苦瓜萃取物複方組(1750 mg/kg B.W.),實驗為期八週,第七週時進行葡萄糖耐受試驗(OGTT),隔週後進行犧牲並分析各組間之禁食血糖、血脂(TG、TC、HDL-C)、胰島素、發炎反應物質(CRP)、血管內皮細胞損傷指標(vWF)、脂質過氧化物(MDA)及肝臟中TG、TC濃度,並進行心臟、主動脈弓及腎臟之病理染色觀測。結果顯示,給予兩種劑量之苦瓜萃取物複方皆能顯著降低糖尿病鼠之禁食血糖、TG、CRP、vWF及MDA之濃度(p<0.05),並顯著提升HDL-C濃度(p<0.05)及有增加胰島素分泌之趨勢,高劑量苦瓜萃取物複方之給予並未能進一步增強效果。綜合上述結果得知,給予糖尿病大鼠八週苦瓜萃取物複方之補充,可有效改善禁食血糖值及其誘發之氧化緊迫,降低體內之發炎反應及改善血脂異常,進而減緩血栓性心血管併發症之發生。
Diabetic complications are the major causes of death in diabetic mellitus (DM). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia are involved in the development of diabetic complications. The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of single dose Momordica charantia L., evening primrose oil, and chromium yeast have been well-known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial product (GlucoHealth™), with Momordica charantia L. extract as the major ingredient, on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and inflammatory markers in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four experimental groups, including normal control (C), diabetic control (D), diabetic rats with regular dose (875 mg/kg B.W.) of GlucoHealth™ (M), and diabetic rats with high dose (1750 mg/kg B.W.) of GlucoHealth™ (H). After 8 weeks of feeding, serum concentration of fasting glucose, Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile (TG, TC, HDL-C), insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), von Willebrand factor (vWF), malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The results of this study showed that serum concentration of fasting glucose, TG, CRP , vWF, and MDA were decreased significantly (p&lt;0.05) by feeding GlucoHealth™ to diabetic rats. Serum concentration of HDL-C were increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) and insulin secretion tended to be increased by feeding GlucoHealth™ to diabetic rats. In conclusion, the regular dose of GlucoHealth™ may have beneficial effects to decrease fasting glucose, TG and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, to ameliorate chronic inflammation, and hence decrease the risk to develop diabetic complications in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
第一章 前言…………………………………………………………………1
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………………2
第一節 糖尿病之簡介…………………………………………………3
第二節 糖尿病之慢性併發症…………………………………………7
第三節 血脂異常與第2型糖尿病……………………………………14
第四節 慢性發炎反應與第2型糖尿病………………………………16
第五節 Streptozotocin(STZ)致糖尿病之動物模式……………………19
第六節 苦瓜萃取物複方之簡介……………………………………26
第七節 研究目的………………………………………………………29

第三章 材料與方法………………………………………………………30
第一節 實驗材料………………………………………………………30
第二節 動物試驗與試驗設計…………………………………………33
第三節 實驗分析方法…………………………………………………37
一、 血液分析………………………………………………37
1. 空腹血糖值測定…………………………………………37
2. 葡萄糖耐受試驗……………………………………38
3. 血清總膽固醇(TC)分析..............................38
4. 血清總三酸甘油酯(TG)分析.........................39
5. 血清高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(HDL-C)分析……………39
6. 脂質氧化之丙二醛濃度測定…………………………40
7. 血清胰島素濃度分析…………………………………41
8. C反應蛋白(C-reactive protein;CRP)測定……………41
9. von Willebrand Factor(vWF)之測定………………42

二、 臟器分析................................43
1. 肝臟脂質含量分析.................................43
2. 病理切片染色分析..................................44
第四節 統計方法……………………………………………………45

第四章 結果……………………………………………………………46
第一節 生理及血液生化值分析……………………………………46
一、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠體重和每日攝食之影響46

二、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠各相對器官重量影響…47

三、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠禁食血糖之影響 ……47

四、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠血清中胰島素濃度之影響....48

五、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠血脂質代謝之影響……48

六、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠血清中MDA濃度之影響…49

七、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠血清中C-反應蛋白之影響……49

八、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠血漿中von Willebrand factor(vWF) 濃度之影響………50

第二節 臟器分析……………50
一、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠肝臟中脂質濃度之影響………………………………50

二、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠腎臟及心臟連主動脈弓、主動脈之病理切片分析之影響………51

第五章 討論…………………………………………………………………67
第一節 生理及血液生化值分析結果之討論…………………………67
一、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠體重、每日攝食量及相對器官重量之影響……………67

二、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠禁食血糖及血清中胰島素濃度之影響…………………………………68

三、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠血脂質代謝之影響………………………………………………………70

四、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠血清中MDA濃度之影響…72

五、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠血清中C-反應蛋白(CRP)之影響……………74

六、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發糖尿病大鼠血漿中von Willebrand factor(vWF) 濃度之影響……………………75

第二節 臟器分析結果之討論………………………………………77
一、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠肝臟中脂質濃度之影響77
二、 苦瓜萃取物複方對STZ誘發之糖尿病大鼠腎臟及心臟連主動脈弓、主動脈之病理切片分析之影響…………78

第六章 結論…………………………………………………………………79
第七章 參考文獻……………………………………………………………80
行政院衛生署 (2004) 中華民國九十三年台灣死因統計結果摘要,93年台灣地區主要死因分析,http://www.doh.gov.tw/statistic/data/死因摘要/93年htm

蔡世澤 (1998) 臺灣糖尿病照護現況與省思。臨床醫學, 45: 316-320。

蔡世澤、王朝弘、林瑞祥、陳秀熙、董道興 (2002) 糖尿病全程照護品管調查初報。中華民國糖尿病衛教學會2002年會會刊, 13-14。

胡啟民 (2004) 預防第二型糖尿病。臨床醫學,53: 67-71。

行政院衛生署 (2007) 衛生統計資料網,http://www.doh.gov.tw/statistic/data/衛生統計叢書2/95/上冊/index.htm。

裴馰 (2000) 糖尿病腎病變。國防醫學,30: 498-503。

趙哲毅 (2003) 苦瓜活化過氧化體增殖劑活化受器及改變脂質代謝相關基因表現。台灣大學微生物與生化學研究所博士論文。

陳傑群、楊又才等譯 (2000) 新編實用營養學。藝軒圖書出版社,台北市。

劉振軒等 (1996) 組織病理染色技術與圖譜。藝軒圖書出版社,台北市。

金惠民等 (2002) 疾病‧營養與膳食療養。華香園出版社,台北市。

甯均慧 (2004) 探討擠壓加工蕎麥粉對倉鼠血脂質及抗凝血因子之影響。靜宜大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
Abraham, A. S., Sonnenblick, M. & Eini, M. (1982) The action of chromium on serum lipids and on atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 42: 185-195.

Adisakwattana, S., Roengsamran, S., Hsu, W. H. & Yibchok-anun, S. (2005) Mechanisms of antihyperglycemic effect of p-methoxycinnamic acid in normal and strepotozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 78: 406-412.

Adler, A. I., Neil, H. A., Manley, S. E., Holman, R. R. & Turner, R. C. (1999) Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia at diagnosis of diabetes and their association with subsequent cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom prospective diabetes study (UKPDS 47). Am. Heart J. 138: S353-359.

Adler, A. I., Stevens, R. J., Manley, S. E., Bilous, R. W., Cull, C. A. & Holman, R. R. (2003) Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64). Kidney Int. 63: 225-232.

Aljada, A., Garg, R. & Ghanim, H. (2001) Nuclear factor-kappa-B suppressive and inhibitor-kappa-B stimulatory effects of troglitazone in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: evidence of an anti-inflammatory action? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86: 3250-3256.

Al-Maskari, F., El-Sadig, M. & Norman, J. N. (2007) The prevalence of macrovascular complications among diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates. Cardiovasc. Diabetol. 6: 24-45.

Altomare, E., Vendemiale, G., Ghicco, D., Procacci, V. & Cirelli, F. (1992) Increase lipid peroxidation in type 2 poorly controlled diabetic patients. Diabetes Metabol. 18: 264-268.

American Diabetes Association (1997) Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 20: 1183-1197.

Anderson, J. W., Gowri, M. S., Turner, J., Nichols, L., Diwadkar, V. A., Chow, C. K. & Oeltgen, P. R. (1999) Antioxidant supplementation effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 18: 451-461.

Annuzzi, G., De Natale, C., Iovine, C., Patti, L., Di Marino, L., Coppola, S., Del Prato, S., Riccardi, G. & Rivellese, A. A. (2004) Insulin resistance is independently associated with postprandial alterations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 24: 2397-2402.

Ahmed, I., Adeghate, E., Sharma, A. K., Pallot, D. J. & Singh, J. (1998) Effects of Momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 40: 145-151.

Ahmed, I., Lakhani, M. S., Gillett, M., John, A. & Raza, H. (2001) Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia (karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 51: 155-161.

Babu, P. S. & Stanely Mainzen Prince, P. (2004) Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect of hyponidd, an ayurvedic herbomineral formulation in strepotozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 56: 1435-1442.

Bansal, V. & Kalita, J. (2006) Diabetic neuropathy. Postgrad. Med. J. 82: 95-100.

Basta, G., Schmidt, A. M. & Caterina, R. D. (2004) Advanced glycation end products and vascular inflammation: implications for accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes. Cardiovasc. Res. 63: 582-592.

Beutler, B. & Cerami, A. (1989) The biology of cachectin/TNF-α primary mediator of the host response. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 7: 625-655.

Bhatia, S., Shukla, R., Madhu, S. V., Gambhir, J. K. & Prabhu, K. M. (2003) Antioxidant atatus , lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide end products in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy . Clin. Biochem. 36: 557-562.

Blake, G. J. & Ridker, P. M. (2002) Inflammatory bio-markers and cardiovascular risk prediction. J. Intern. Med. 252: 283-294.

Blann, A. D. (1993) Is raised von Willebrand factor a marker of endothelial cell damage? Med. Hypotheses. 41: 419-424.

Blann, A. D. & Taberner, D. A. (1995) A reliable marker of endothelial cell dysfunction: Does it exist ? Br. J. Haematol. 90: 244-248.

Bohannon, N (2003) Insulin therapy for reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin. Cornerstone. 5: S21-S27.

Brownlee, M. (2001) Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications. Nature 414: 813-820.

Brownlee, M. (2005) The pathobiology of diabetic complications. Diabetes 54: 1615-1625.

Burke, J. P., Williams, K., Gaskill, S. P., Hazuda, H. P., Haffner, S. M. & Stern, M. P. (1999) Rapid rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes from 1987 to 1996: results from the San Antonio Heart Study. Arch. of Intern. Med. 159: 1450-1456.

Buse, M. G. (2006) Hexosamines, insulin resistance, and the complications of diabetes: current status. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 290: E1-E8.

Caballero, A. E. (2003) Endothelial dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance: a road to diabetes and heart disease. Obes. Res. 11: 1278-1289.

Calder, P. C. (1993) The effect of fatty acids on lymphocyte functions. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Tes. 9: 901-917.

Ceriello, A. & Motz, E. (2004) Is oxidative stress the pathogenic mechanism underlying insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease? the common soil hypothesis revisited. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 24: 816-823.

Chan, L. L., Chen, Q., Go, A. G., Lam, E. K. & Li, E. T. (2005) Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)-fed rats is associated with increased lipid oxidative enzyme activities and uncoupling protein expression. J. Nutr. 135: 2517-2523.

Chen, M. S., Kao, C. S., Chang, C. J., Wu, T. J., Fu, C. C. & Chen, C. J. (1992) Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy among non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. American J. of Ophthalmol. 114: 723-730.

Chen, Q., Chan, L. L. & Li, E. T. (2003) Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) reduces adiposity, lowers serum insulin and normalizes glucose tolerance in rats fed a high fat diet. J. Nutr. 133: 1088-1093.

Chen, M. S., Kao, C. S., Fu, C. C., Chen, C. J. & Tai, T. Y. (1995) Incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy among non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects: A 4-year follow-up. Int. J. Epidemiol. 24: 787-795.

Chen, W., Suruga, K., Nishimura, N., Gouda, T., Lam, V. N. & Yokogoshi, H. (2005) Comparative regulation of major enzymes in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway by cholesterol, cholate and taurine in mice and rats. Life Sci. 77: 746-757.

Cho, I. J., Lee, C. & Ha, T. Y. (2007) Hypolipidemic effect of soluble fiber isolated from seeds of Cassia tora Linn. in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 1592-1596.

Chobanian, A. V., Arquilla, E. R., Clarkson, T. B., Eder, H. A., Howard, C. F. Jr., Regan, T. J. & Williamson, J. R. (1982) Cardiovascular complications. Diabetes 31: 54-64.

Chuang, L. M., Tsai, S. T., Huang, B. Y. & Tai, T. Y. (2001) The current state of diabetes management in Taiwan. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 54: S55-S65.

Cohen, O., Norymberg, K., Neumann, E. & Dekel, H. (1998) Complication-free duration and the risk of development of retinopathy in elderly diabetic patients. Arch. of Intern. Med. 158: 641-644.

Colantuoni, A., Bertuglia, S., Magistretti, M. J. & Donato, L. (1991) Effects of Vaccinium Myrtillus anthocyanosides on arterial vasomotion. Arzneimittelforschung. 41: 905-909.

Conlan, M. G., Folsom, A. R. & Finch, A. (1993) Associations of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor with age, race, sex and risk factors for atherosclerosis. Thromb. Haemost. 70: 380-385.

Cortes, P., Levin, N. W., Dumler, F., Rubenstein, A. H., Verghese, C. P. & Venkatachalam, K. K. (1980) Uridine triphosphate and RNA synthesis during diabetes-induced kidney growth. Am. J. Physiol. 238: 349-357.

Cosentino, F. & Assenza, G. E. (2004) Diabetes and inflammation. Herz. 29: 749-759.

Dandona, P., Weinstock, R., Thusu, K., Abdel-Rahman, E., Aljada, A. & Wadden, T. (1998) Tumor necrosis factor-α in sera of obese patients: fall with weight loss. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83: 2907-2910.

Danesh, J., Wheeler, J. G., Hirschfield, G. M., Eda, S., Eiriksdottir, G., Rumley, A., Lowe, G. D., Pepys, M. B. & Gudnason, V. (2004) C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 350: 1387-1397.

Daniel, R. S., Devi, K. S., Augusti, K. T. & Sudhakaran Nair, C. R. (2003) Mechanism of action of antiatherogenic and related effects of Ficus bengalensis Linn. flavonoids in experimental animals. Indian. J. Exp. Biol. 41: 296-303.

De Caterina, R., Libby, P. & Peng, H. B. (1995) Nitric oxide decreases cytokine-induced endothelial activation. Nitric oxide selectively reduces endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. J. Clin. Invest. 96: 60-68.

De La Cruz, J. P., Martin-Romero, M., Carmona, J.A., Villalobos, M. A. & De La Cuesta, F. S. (1997) Effect of evening primrose oil on platelet aggregation in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet. Thromb. Res. 97: 141-149.

De Vries, R., Borggreve, S. E. & Dullaart, R. P. (2003) Role of lipases, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein in abnormal high density lipoprotein metabolism in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin. Lab. 49: 601-613.

Dierckx, N., Horvath, G., Gils, C., Vertommen, J., Vliet, J., Leeuw, I. & Keenoy, B. M. (2003) Oxidative stress status in patients with diabetes mellitus:relationship to diet. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 57: 999-1008.

Dines, C. D., Cotter, M. A. & Cameron, N. E. (1995) Nerve function in galactosaemic rats: effects of evening primrose oil and doxazosin. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 281: 303-309.

Ding, Y., Vaziri, N. D., Coulson, R., Kamanna, V. S. & Roh, D. D. (2000) Effects of simulated hyperglycemia, insulin, and glucagon on endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 279: E11-E17.

Dowse, G. K., Humphrey, A. R., Collins, V. R., Plehwe, W., Gareeboo, H. & Fareed, D. (1998) Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in the multiethnic population of Mauritius. Am. J. Epidemiol. 147: 448-457.

Du, X. L., Edelstein, D. & Rossetti, L. (2000) Hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction activates the hexosamine pathway and induces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by increasing Sp1 glycosylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 12222-12226.

Du, X., Matsumura, T., Edelstein, D., Rossetti, L., Zsengeller, Z., Szabo, C. & Brownlee, M. (2003) Inhibition of GAPDH activity by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activates three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage in endothelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. 112: 1049-1057.

Duman, B., S., Turkoglu, C., Gunay, D., Cagatay, P., Demiroglu, C. & Buyukdevrim, A. (2003) The interrelationship between insulin secretion and action in type 2 diabetes mellitus with different degrees of obesity: evidence supporting central obesity. Diabetes Nutr. Metab. 16: 243-250.

Edben, P. (1989) A study of evening primrose seed oil in atopic asthma. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 35: 69-72.

Erbagic, A. B., Tarakcioglu, M., Coskun, Y., Sivasli, E. & Namiduru, E. S. (2001) Mediator of inflammation in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: cytokines in type 1 diabetes children. Clin. Biochem. 34: 645-650.

Esmatjes, E., Castell, C., Gonzalez, T., Tresserras, R. & Lloveras, G. (1996) Epidemiology of renal involvement in Type II diabetics (NIDDM) in Catalonia. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 3: 157-163.

Farvid, M. S., Siassi, F., Jalali, M., Hosseini, M. & Saadat, N. (2004) The impact of vitamin and/or mineral supplementation on lipid profiles in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 65(1): 21-28.

Fan, Y. Y., Ramos, K. S. & Chapkin, R. S. (1995) Dietary gamma-linolenic acid modulates macrophage-vascular smooth muscle cell interactions. Evidence for a macrophage-derived soluble factor that downregulates DNA synthesis in smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 15: 1397-1403.

Feng, W., Ding, W., Qian, Q. & Chai, Z. (1998) Use of the enriched stable isotope Cr-50 as a tracer to study the metabolism of chromium (III) in normal and diabetic rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 63: 129-138.

Ferri, C., Bellini, C. & Desideri, G. (1995) Plasma endothelin1 levels in obese hypertensive and normotensive men. Diabetes 44: 431-436.

Festa, A., Agostino, R., Mykkänen, L., Tracy, R. P. & Haffner, S. M. (2000) Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome : The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation 102: 42-47.

Fungwe, T. V., Cagen, L. M., Wilcox, H. G. & Heiberg, M. (1992) Regulation of hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein by dietary cholesterol. J. Lipid Res. 33: 179-191.

Fungwe, T. V., Cagen, L. M., Cook, G. A., Wilcox, H. G. & Hermberg, M. (1993) Dietary cholesterol stimulates hepatic biosynthesis of triglyceride and reduces oxidation of fatty acid in the rat. J. Lipid Res. 34: 933-941.

Gadi, R. & Samaha, F. F. (2007) Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr. Diab. Rep. 7: 228-234.

Gallou, G., Ruelland, A., Legras, B., Maugendre, D., Allannic, H. & Cloarec, L. (1993) Plasma malondialdehyde in type 1and type 2 diabetic patients. Clin. Chim. Acta. 214: 227-234.

Geltner, C., Lechleitner, M., Föger, B., Ritsch, A., Drexel, H. & Patsch, J. R. (2002) Insulin improves fasting and postprandial lipemia in type 2 diabetes. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 13: 256-263.

Gibson, R. S. (1989) Assessment of trace element status in humans. Prog. in Food and Nutr. Sci. 13: 67-111.

Ginsberg, H. N., Zhang, Y. L. & Hernandez-Ono, A. (2005) Regulation of plasma triglycerides in insulin resistance and diabetes. Arch. Med. Res. 36: 232-240.

Goldberg, H. J., Scholey, J. & Fantus, I. G. (2000) Glucosamine activates the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene promoter through Sp1 DNA binding sites in glomerular mesangial cell. Diabetes 49: 863-871.

Greenberg, A. S., Nordan, R. P., McIntosh, J., Calvo, J. C., Scow, R. O. & Jablons, D. (1992) Interleukin-6 reduces lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue of mice in vivo and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: a possible role for interleukin-6 in cancer cachexia. Cancer Res. 52: 4113-4116.

Gruys, M. E., Back, T. C., Subleski, J., Wiltrout, T. A., Lee, J. K., Schmidt, L., Watanabe, M., Stanyon, R., Ward, J. M., Wigginton, J. M. & Wiltrout, R. H. (2001) Induction of transplantable mouse renal cell cancers by streptozotocin: in vivo growth, metastases, and angiogenic phenotype. Cancer Res. 61: 6255-6263.

Hanyu, O., Miida, T., Obayashi, K., Ikarashi, T., Soda, S., Kaneko, S., Hirayama, S., Suzuki, K., Nakamura, Y., Yamatani, K. & Aizawa, Y. (2004) Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass in preheparin serum reflects insulin sensitivity. Atherosclerosis 174: 385-390.

Hardardottir, I., Grunfeld, C. & Feingold, K. R. (1994) Effects of endotoxin and cytokines on lipid metabolism. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 5: 207-215.

Held, P. J., Port, F. K. & Blagg, C. R. (1990) The United States Renal Data System''s 1990 Annual Data Report: an introduction. Am. J. Kidney Dis.16: 1-106.

Herr, R. R., Jahnke, H. K. & Argoudelis, A. D. (1967) The structure of streptozotocin. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89: 4808-4809.

Herrman, C. E., Sanders, R. A., Klaunig, J. E., Schwarz, L. R. & Watkins, J. B. (1999) Decreased apoptosis as a mechanism for hepatomegaly in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Toxicol Sci. 50: 146-151.

Hink, U., Li, H. & Mollnau, H. (2001) Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Circ. Res. 88: 14-22.

Hollenbeck, C. B. & Coulston, A. M. (1991) Effects of dietary carbohydrate and fat intake on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 14: 774-785.

Horváth, B., Hegedüs, D., Szapáry, L., Márton, Z., Alexy, T., Koltai, K., Gyevnár, Z., Juricskay, I., Tóth, K. & Késmárky, G. (2003) Investigation of von Willebrand-factor as a marker of endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerotic patients. Orv. Hetil. 144: 2471-2476.

Howard, B. V., Lee, E. T., Cowan, L. D., Fabsitz, R. R., Howard, W. J., Oopik, A. J., Robbins, D. C., Savage, P. J., Yeh, J. L. & Welty, T. K. (1995) Coronary heart disease prevalence and its relation to risk factors in American Indians. The strong Heart Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 142: 254-268.

Humphries, S. E., Luong, L. A., Ogg, M. S., Hawe, E. & Miller, G. J. (2001) The interleukin-6–174 G/C promoter polymorphism is associated with risk of coronary heart disease and systolic blood pressure in healthy men. Eur. Heart J. 22: 2243-2252.

Huxley, R., Barzi, F. & Woodward, M. (2006) Excess risk of fatal coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in men and women: meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies. BMJ. 332: 73-78.

Ibrahim, W., Lee, U. S., Yeh, C. C., Szabo, J., Bruckner, G. & Chow, C. K. (1997) Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in mouse liver: effects of dietary lipid, vitamin E and iron. J. Nutr. 127: 1401-1406.

Inagaki, Y., Yamagishi, S., Okamoto, T., Takeuchi, M. & Amano, S. (2003) Pigment epithelium-derived factor prevents advanced glycation end products induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in microvascular endothelial cells by suppressing intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Diabetologia. 46: 284-287.

Ishii, H., Jirousek, M. R., Koya, D., Takagi, C., Xia, P., Clermont, A., Bursell, S. E., Kern, T. S., Ballas, L. M., Heath, W. F., Stramm, L. E., Feener, E. P. & King, G. L. (1996) Amelioration of vascular dysfunctions in diabetic rats by an oral PKC beta inhibitor. Science. 272: 728-731.

Jager, A., van Hinsbergh, V. W. & Kostense, P. J. (2000) Increased levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 are associated with risk of cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn study. Diabetes 49: 485-491.

James, L. R., Fantus, I. G., Goldberg, H., Ly, H. & Scholey, J. W. (2000) Overexpression of GFAT activates PAI-1 promoter in mesangial cells. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 279: F718-F727.

Jocken, J. W., Langin, D., Smit, E., Saris, W. H., Valle, C., Hul, G. B., Holm, C., Arner, P. & Blaak, E. E. (2007) Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase protein expression is decreased in the obese insulin-resistant state. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92: 2292-2299.

Junod, A., Lambert, A. E., Orci, L., Pictet, R. & Gonet, A. E. (1967) Studies of the diabetogeic action of streptozotoin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 126: 201-205.

Junod, A., Lambert, A. E., Stauffacher, W. & Renold, A. E. (1969) Diabetogenic action of streptozotocin: Relationship of dose to metabolic response. J. Clin. Inues. 48: 2129-2139.

Kadar, A., Robert, L., Miskulin, M. & Robert, A. M. (1979) Influence of anthocyanoside treatment on the cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Paroi. Arterielle. 5: 187-205.

Kang, E. S., Kim, H. J., Ahu, C. W., Park, C. W., Cha, B. S., Lim, S. K., Kim, K. R. & Lee, H. C. (2005) Relationship of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein to metabolic syndrome and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res. Clin. Park. 69: 151-159.

Kannel, W. B. (2005) Overview of hemostatic factors involved in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Lipids 40: 1215-1220.

Keane, W. F., Zhang, Z., Lyle, P. A., Cooper, M. E., de Zeeuw, D., Grunfeld, J. P., Lash, J. P., McGill, J. B., Mitch, W. E., Remuzzi, G., Shahinfar, S., Snapinn, S. M., Toto, R. & Brenner, B. M. (2006) Risk scores for predicting outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy: the RENAAL study. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1: 611-613.

Kelly, D. J., Aaltonen, P., Cox, A. J., Rumble, J. R., Langham, R., Panagiotopoulos, S., Jerums, G., Holthöfer, H. & Gilbert, R. E. (2002) Expression of the slit-diaphragm protein, nephrin, in experimental diabetic nephropathy: differing effects of anti-proteinuric therapies. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 17: 1327-1332.

Kessler, L., Wiessel, M. L., Attali, P., Mossard, J. M., Cazenave, J. P. & Pingent, M. (1998) von Willebrand factor in diabetic angiopathy. Diabetes Metab. 24: 327-336.

Khanna, P., Jain, S. C., Panagariya, A. & Dixit, V. P. (1981) Hypoglycemic activity of polypeptide-p from a plant source. J. Nat. Prod. 44: 648-655.

Khovidhunkit, W., Memon, R. A., Feingold, K. R. & Grunfeld, C. (2000) Infection and inflammation-induced proatherogenic changes of lipoproteins. J. Infect. Dis. 181: S462-S472.

King, H. & Rewers, M. (1993) Global estimates for prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in adults. Diabetes Care 16: 157-177.

King, H., Aubert, R. E. & Herman, W. H. (1998) Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence,numerical estimate, and projections. Diabetes Care 21: 1414-1431.

Klein, R., Klein, B. E. K., Moss, S. E., Davis, M. D. & De Mets, D. L. (1989) The Wisconsin epidemiology study of diabetic retinopathy X. four-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is 30 years or more. Arch. Ophthalmol. 107: 244-249.

Kohner, E. M., Aldington, S. J., Stratton, I. M., Manley, S. E., Holman, R. R. & Matthews, D. R. (1998) United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, 30: diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors. Arch. Ophthalmol. 116: 297-303.

Kokura, S. (1997) Efficacy of hyperthermis and polyunsaturated fatty acids on experimental carcinoma. Cancer Res. 57: 2200-2202.

Kouroedov, A., Eto, M., Joch, H., Volpe, M., Luscher, T. F. & Cosentino, F. (2004) Selective inhibition of protein kinase Cbeta2 prevents acute effects of high glucose on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human endothelial cells. Circulation 110: 91-96.

Koya, D. & King, G. L. (1998) Protein kinase C activation and the development of diabetic complications. Diabetes 47: 859-866.

Koya, D., Haneda, M., Nakagawa, H., Isshiki, K., Sato, H., Maeda, S., Sugimoto, T., Yasuda, H., Kashiwagi, A., Ways, D. K., King, G. L. & Kikkawa, R. (2000) Amelioration of accelerated diabetic mesangial expansion by treatment with a PKC beta inhibitor in diabetic db/db mice, a rodent model for type 2 diabetes. FASEB. J. 14: 439-447.

Kroncke, K. D., Fehsel, K., Sommer, A., Rodriguez, M. L. & Kolb-Bachofen, V. (1995) Nitric oxide generation during cellular metabolization of the diabetogenic N-methyl-N-nitroso-urea streptozotocin contributes to islet cell DNA damage. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. 376: 179-185.

Kruszynska, Y. T., McCormark, J. G. & McIntyre, N. (1991) Effect of glycogen stores and non-esterified fatty acid availability on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in the rats. Diabetologia. 34: 205-211.

Kumar-Shetty, A., Suresh-Kumar, G. & Veerayya-Salimath, P. (2005) Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) modulates activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 49: 791-796.

Kusunoki, J., Aragane, K., Kitamine, T., Kozono, H., Kano, K., Fujinami, K., Kojima, K., Chiwata, T. & Sekine, Y. (2000) Postprandial hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats is due to abnormal increase in intestinal acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20: 171-178.

Lai, M. H., Chen, Y. Y. & Cheng, H. H. (2006) Chromium yeast supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose and LDL-cholesterol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 76: 391-397.

Lantion-Ang, L. C. (2000) Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Western Pacific region: focus on Philippines. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2: S29-S34.

Laplaud, P. M., Lelubre, A. & Chapman, M. J. (1997) Antioxidant action of Vaccinium myrtillus extract on human low density lipoproteins in vitro: initial observations. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 11: 35-40.

Lapolla, A., Piarulli, F., Sartore, G., Ceriello, A., Ragazzi, E., Reitano, R., Baccarin, L., Laverda, B. & Fedele, D. (2007) Advanced glycation end products and antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients with and without peripheral artery disease. Diabetes Care 30: 670-676.

Leiter, L. A. & Lewanczuk, R. Z. (2005) Of the renin-angiotensin system and reactive oxygen species. Am. J. Hypertens. 18: 121-128.

Lewis, G. F., Murdoch, S., Uffelman, K., Naples, M., Szeto, L., Albers, A., Adeli, K. & Brunzell, J. D. (2004) Hepatic lipase mRNA, protein, and plasma enzyme activity is increased in the insulin-resistant, fructose-fed Syrian golden hamster and is partially normalized by the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone. Diabetes 53: 2893-2900.

Libby, P. (2004) Reducing the risk of atherosclerosis: the role of highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol. Br. J. Cardiol. 11: S3-6.

Martin-Aragon, S., Basabe, B., Benedi, J. M. & Villar, A. M. (1998) Antioxidant action of Vaccinium myrtillus L. Phytother. Res. 12: 104-106.

Marx, N., Sukhova, G. K., Collins, T., Libby, P. & Plutzky, J. (1999) PPAR-alpha activators inhibit cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human endothelial cells. Circulation 99: 3125-3131.

Masiello, P., Novelli, M., Fierabracci, V. & Bergamini, E. (1990) Protection by 3-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide against streptozotocin-induced beta-cell toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Res. Commun Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 69: 17-32.

Masiello, P., Broca, C., Gross, R., Roye, M., Manteghetti, M., Hillaire-Buys, D., Novelli, M. & Ribes, G. (1998) Experimental niddm: Development of a new model in adult rats adiministered streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Diabetes 47: 224-229.

Mehta, J. L., Saldeen, T. G. & Rand, K. (1998) Interactive role of infection, inflammation and traditional risk factors in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 31: 1217-1225.

Mertz, W. (1993) Chromium in Human Nutrition: A Review. J. Nutr. 123: 626-633.

Merzouk, H., Madani, S., Boualga, A., Prost, J., Bouchenak, M. & Belleville, J. (2001) Age-related changes in cholesterol metabolism in macrosomic offspring of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. J. Lipid Res. 42: 1152-1159.

Misawa, S., Kuwabaraa, S., Ogawaraa, K., Kitanoa, Y., Yaguib, K. & Hattoria, T. (2004) Hyperglycemia alters refractory periods in human diabetic neuropathy. Clin. Neuro. 115: 2525-2529.

Mitchell, P., Smith, W., Wanh, J. J. & Attebo, K. (1998) Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in an older community. The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 105: 406-411.

Miura, T., Itoh, Y., Iwamoto, N., Kato, M. & Ishida, T. (2004) Suppressive activity of the fruit of Momordica charantia with exercise on blood glucose in type 2 diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27: 248-250.

Mohamed-Ali, V., Goodrick, S. & Bulmer, K. (1999) Production of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors by human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Am. J. Physiol. 277: E971-E975.

Mojiminiyi, O. A., Abdella, N., Moussa, M. A., Akanji, A. O., Mohammedi, H. A. & Zaki, M. (2002) Association of C-reactive protein with coronary heart disease risk fdctors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 58: 37-44.

Moore, T. C., Moore, J. E., Kaji, Y., Frizzell, N., Usui, T., Poulaki, V., Campbell, I. L., Stitt, A. W., Gardiner, T. A., Archer, D. B. & Adamis, A. P. (2003) The role of advanced glycation end products in retinal microvascular leukostasis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44: 4457-4464.

Morris, B. W., Blumsohn, A., Neil, S. M. & Gray, T. A. (1992) The trace element chromium-a role in glucose homeostasis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55: 989-991.

Nielsen, F. H., Shils, M. E., Olson, J. A. & Shike, M. (1994) Mondern nutrition in health and disease. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. 264-268.

Nishikawa, T., Edelstein, D., Du, X. L., Yamagishi, S., Matsumura, T., Kaneda, Y., Yorek, M. A., Beebe, D., Oates, P. J., Hammes, H. P., Giardino, I. & Brownlee, M. (2000) Normalizing mitochondrial superoxide production blocks three pathways of hyperglycemic damage. Nature 404: 787-790.

Nishikawa, T., Edelstein, D. & Brownlee, M. (2000b) The missing link: a single unifying mechanism for diabetic complications. Kidney Int. 58: S26-S30.

Nukatsuka, M., Yoshimura, Y., Nishida, M. & Kawada, J. (1990) Importance of the concentration of ATP in rat pancreatic beta cell in the mechanism of streptozotocin-induced cytotoxicity. J. Endocrinol. 127: 161-165.

Omi, H., Okayama, N., Shimizu, M., Okouchi, M., Ito, S., Fukutomi, T. & Itoh, M. (2002) Participation of high glucose concentrations in neutrophil adhesion and surface expression of adhesion molecules on cultured human endothelial cells: effect of antidiabetic medicines. J. Diabetes Complications 16: 201-208.

Osada, K., Suzuki, T., Kawakami, Y., Senda, M., Kasai, A., Sami, M., Ohta, Y., Kanda, T. & Ikeda, M. (2006) Dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic actions of dietary apple polyphenol in rats fed cholesterol. Lipids 41: 133-139.

Otter, W., Kleybrink, S., Doering, W., Standl, E. & Schnell, O. (2002) Hospital outcome of acute myocardial infarction in patients with and without diabetes mellitus . Diabetic Med. 21: 183-187.

Ozdemir, G., Ozden, M., Maral, H., Kuskay, S., Cetinalp, P. & Tarkun, I. (2005) Malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 42: 99-104.

Park, L., Raman, K. G., Lee, K. J., Lu, Y., Ferran, L. J. Jr., Chow, W. S., Stern, D. & Schmidt, A. M. (1998) Suppression of accelerated diabetic atherosclerosis by the soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts. Net. Med. 4: 1025-1031.

Park, J. Y., Takahara, N., Gabriele, A., Chou, E., Naruse, K., Suzuma, K., Yamauchi, T., Ha, S. W., Meier, M., Rhodes, C. J. & King, G. L. (2000) Induction of endothelin-1 expression by glucose: an effect of protein kinase C activation. Diabetes 49: 1239-1248.

Parthiban, A., Vijayalingam, S., Shanmugasundaram, K. R. & Mohan, R. (1995) Oxidative stress and the development of diabetic complications-antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes and cell membrane. Cell. Biol. Int. 19: 987-993.

Pearson, T. A., Anderson, J. L., Cannon, R. O., Criqui, M., Fadl, Y. Y., Fortmann, S. P., Hong, Y., Myers, G. L., Rifai, N., Smith, S. C., Taubert, K., Tracy, R. P. & Vinicor, F. (2003) Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: A statement for healthcare professionals from the centers for disease control and prevention and the american heart association. Circulation 107: 499-511.

Peng, H. B., Rajavashisth, T. B., Libby, P. & Liao, J. K. (1995) Nitric oxide inhibits macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene transcription in vascular endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 17050-17055.

Perkin, J. M. & Davis, S. N. (2007) The rationale for prandial glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Insulin 2: 52-60.

Plater, M. E., Ford, I., Dent, M. T., Preston, F. E. & Ward, J. D. (1996) Elevated von Willebrand factor antigen predicts deterioration in diabetic peripheral nerve function. Diabetologia. 39: 336-343.

Pickup, J. C., Mattock, M. B., Chusney, G. D. & Burt, D. (1997) NIDDM as a disease of the innate immune system: association of acute-phase reactants and interleukin-6 with metabolic syndrome X. Diabetologia. 40: 1286-1292.

Pickup, J. C. (2004) Inflammation and activated innate immunity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 27: 813-823.

Pinkney, J. H., Stehouwer, C. D., Coppack, S. W. & Yudkin, J. S. (1997) Endothelial dysfunction: cause of the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes 46: 9-13.

Raj, D.S., Choudhury, D., Welbourne, W. C. & Levi, M. (2000) Advanced glycation end products: a Nephrologist''s perspective. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 35: 365-380.

Rakieten, N., Rakieten, G. M. & M. V. (1963) Studies on the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin. Cancer chemother. 29: 91-98.

Ranhotra, G. S. & Gelroth, J. A. (1986) Effects of high-chromium Baker''s yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in rat''s. Cereal Chem. 63: 411-413.

Ravi, K., Rajasekaran, S. & Subramanian, S. (2005) Antihyperlipidemic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 43: 1433-1439.

Reusch, J. E. (2003) Diabetes, microvascular complications, and cardiovascular complications: what is it about glucose? J. Clin. Invest. 112: 986-988.

Ridker, P. M., Hennekens, C. H., Buring, J. E. & Rifai, N. (2000) C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N. Engl. J. Med. 342: 836-843.

Ridker, P. M., Buring, J. E. & Cook, N. R. (2003) C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome,and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14719 initially healthy American women. Circulation 7: 391-397.

Rodrigues, B., Poucheret, P., Battell, M. L. & McNeill, J. H. (1999) Streptozotocin-induced diabetes: induction, mechanism(s), and dose dependency. In Experimental models of diabetes. CRC. Press. LLC, Boca. Raton, Flrida, USA. pp. 6-13.

Roffey, B. W., Atwal, A. S., Johns, T. & Kubow, S. (2007) Water extracts from momordica charantia increase glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 112: 77-84.

Rolo, A. P. & Palmerira, C. M. (2006) Diabetes and mitochondrial function: role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol. 212: 167-178.

Ronald, M. & Krauss, M. D. (2004) Lipids and lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 27: 1496-1504.

Ross, R. & Agius, L. (1992) The process of atherogenesis--cellular and molecular interaction: from experimental animal models to humans. Diabetologia. 35: 34-40.

Ruggeri, Z. M. (2007) The role of von Willebrand factor in thrombus formation. Thromb. Res. 1: S5-9.

Sadler, J. E. (1998) Biochemistry and genetics of von Willebrand factor. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67: 395-424.

Sahin, K., Onderci, M., Tuzcu, M., Vstundoq, B., Cikim, G., Ozeran, I. H., Sriramoju, V., Juturu, V. & Komorowski, J. R. (2007) Effect of chromium on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rat. Metabolism 56: 1233-1240.

Sathishsekar, D. & Subramanian, S. (2005) Beneficial Effects of Momordica charantia Seeds in the Treatment of STZ-Induced Diabetes in Experimental Rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28: 978-983.

Sekar, D. S., Sivagnanam, K. & Subramanian, S. (2005) Antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Pharmazie. 60: 383-387.

Semenkovich, C. F. & Heinecke, J. W. (1997) The mystery of diabetes and atherosclerosis: time for a new plot. Diabetes 46: 327-334.

Schiekofer, S., Balletshofer, B. & Andrassy, M. (2000) Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 26: 503-511.

Schmidt, M. I. & Duncan, B. B. (2003) Diabesity: An inflammatory metabolic condition. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 41: 1120-1130.

Schroeder, H. A., Nason, A. P. & Tipton, I. H. (1970) Chromium deficiency as a factor in atherosclerosis. J. Chronic Dis. 23: 123-142.

Schwartz, K. & Mertz, W. (1959) Chromium III and the glucose tolerance factor. Archives Biochem. Biophys. 85: 292-295.

Sheetz, M. J. & King, G. L. (2002) Molecular understanding of hyperglycemia’s adverse effects for diabetic complications. JAMA. 288: 2579-2588.

Sibley, S. D., Palmer, J. P., Hirsch, I. B. & Brunzell, J. D. (2003) Visceral obesity,hepatic lipase activity,and dyslipidemia in type1diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88: 3379-84.

Siegel, R. D., Cupples, A., Schaefer, E. J. & Wilson, P. W. (1996) Lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and low-density lipoprotein size among diabetics in the Framingham offspring study. Metabolism 45: 1267-1272.

Singh, J., Adeghate, E., Cummings, E., Giannikipolous, C., Sharma, A. K. & Ahmed, I. (2004) Beneficial effects and mechanism of action of Momordica charantia juice in the treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rat. Mol. Cell Biochem. 261: 63-70.

Singh, L. P., Green, K., Alexander, M., Bassly, S. & Crook, E. D. (2004) Hexosamines and TGF-β1 use similar signaling pathways to mediate matrix protein synthesis in mesangial cells. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 286: F409-F416.

Sitasawad, S. L., Shewade, Y. & Bhonde, R. (2000) Role of bittergourd fruit juice in stz-induced diabetic state in vivo and in vitro. J. Ethnopharmacol 73: 71-79.

Sivitz, W. I. (2001) Lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity in type 2 diabetes. Effects on development and progression. Postgrad Med. 109: 55-59.

Slatter, D. A., Bolton, C. H. & Bailey, A. J. (2000) The importance of lipid-derived malondialdehyde in diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 43: 550-557.

Staels, B., Koenig, W. & Habib, A. (1998) Activation of human aortic smooth-muscle cells is inhibited by PPAR-alpha but not by PPAR-gamma activators. Nature 393: 790-793.

Steinberg, H. O. & Baron, A. D. (2002) Vascular function, insulin resistance and fatty acids. Diabetologia. 45: 623-634.

Steven, E. J. (1993) Prostacyclin release in experimental diabetes: effect of evening primrose oil. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 49: 699-701.

Stewart, M.W., Humphriss, D. B.,Berrish, T. S., Barriocanal, L. A. Tragano, L. R., Alberti, K. G. & Walker, M. (1995) Features of symdrome X in first-degree relatives of NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 18: 1020-1022.

Stitt, A. W. (2003) The role of advanced glycation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 75: 95-108.

Takada, R., Saitoh, M. & Mori, T. (1994) Dietary gamma-linolenic acid-enriched oil reduces body fat content and induces liver enzyme activities relating to fatty acid beta-oxidation in rats. J. Nutr. 124: 469-474.

Takasu, N., Komiya, I., Aaswa, T., Nagasawa, Y. & Yamada, T. (1991) Streptozotocin- and alloxan-induced H2O2 generation and DNA fragmentation in pancreatic islets. H2O2 as mediator for DNA fragmentation. Diabetes 40: 1141-1145.

Tall, A. R. (2004) C-reactive protein reassessed. N. Engl. J. Med. 350: 1450-1452.

Taniguchi, H., Kobayashi-Hattori, K., Tenmyo, C., Kamei, T., Uda, Y., Sugita-Konishi, Y., Oishi, Y. & Takita, T. (2006) Effect of Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) sprout (Kaiware-daikon) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytother. Res. 20: 274-278.

Tesfaye, S., Chaturvedi, N. & Eaton, S. E. M. (2005) Vascular risk factors and diabetic neuropathy. N. Engl. J. Med. 352: 341-350.

Tokuno, A., Hirano, T., Hayashi, T., Mori, Y., Yamamoto, T., Nagashima, M., Shiraishi, Y., Ito, Y. & Adachi, M. (2007) The effects of statin and fibrate on lowering small dense LDL- cholesterol in hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes. J. Atheroscler. Thromb. 14: 128-132.

Turk, J., Corbett, J. A., Ramanadham, S., Bohrer, A. & McDaniel, M. C. (1993) Biochemical evidence for nitric oxide formation from streptozotocin in isolated pancreatic islets. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 197: 1458-1464.

Umekawa, H., Takahashi, T. & Furuichi, Y. (1999) Effects of dietary alpha- or gamma-linolenic acid on levels and fatty acid compositions of serum and hepatic lipids, and activity and mRNA abundance of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase in rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 122: 213-220.

Urberg, M., Benyi, J. & John, R. (1988) Hypocholesterolmic effects of nicotinic acid and chromium supplementation. J. Fam. Pract. 27: 603-606.

Valmadrid, C. T., Klein, R., Moss, S. E. & Klein, B. E. (2000) The risk of cardiovascular disease mortality associated with microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. Arch. Intern. Med. 160: 1093-1100.

Van Dam, P. S., Bravenboer, B., Van Asbeck, B. S., Marx, J. J. & Gispen, W. H. (1999) High rat food vitamin E content improves nerve function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 376: 217-222.

Van Wijk, J. P. H., De Koning, E. J. P., Martens, E. P. & Rabelink, T. J. (2007) Thiazolidinediones and blood lipids in type 2 diabetes. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23: 1744-1749.

Verma, S., Li, S. H. & Badiwala, M. V. (2002) Endothelin antagonism and interleukin-6 inhibition attenuate the proatherogenic effects of C-reactive protein. Circulation 105: 1890-1896.

Verma, S., Wang, C. H. & Li, S. H. (2002) C-reactive protein attenuates nitric oxide production and inhibits angiogenesis. Circulation 106: 913-919.

Vinik, A., Mehrabyan, A., Colen, L. & Boulton, A. (2004) Focal entrapment neuropathies in diabetes. Diabetes Care 27: 1783-1788.

Vlassara, H., Fuh, H., Donnelly, T. & Cybulsky, M. (1995) Advanced glycation endproducts promote adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) expression and atheroma formation in normal rabbits. Mol. Med. 1: 447-456.

Wagner, D. D. (1990) Cell biology of von Willebrand factor. Annu. Rev. Cell. Biol. 6: 217-246.

Wang, W. Q., Ip, T. P. & Lam, K. S. L. (1998) Changing prevalence of retinopathy in newly diagnosed non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients in Hong Kong. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 39: 185-191.

Ware, G. W. (1989) Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. New York: Springer-Verlag. 107: 34-52.

Wu, T., McGrath, K. C. & Death, A. K. (2005) Cardiovascular disease in diabetic nephropathy patients: cell adhesion molecules as potential markers? Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 1: 309-316.

Yamagishi, S. & Imaizumi, T. (2005) Diabetic vascular complications: patho- physiology, biochemical basis and potential therapeutic strategy. Curr. Pharm. Des. 11: 2279-2299.

Yeh, E. T. & Willerson, J. T. (2003) Coming of age of C-reactive protein: using inflammation markers in cardiology. Circulation 107: 370-371.

Zwaka, T. P., Hombach, V. & Torzewski, J. (2001) C-reactive protein-mediated low density lipoprotein uptake by macrophages: implications for atherosclerosis. Circulation 103: 1194-1197.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top