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研究生:高宜蓁
研究生(外文):Yi-Chen Kao
論文名稱:2-丙醇、四氫吡喃與2,2,4-三甲基戊烷混合物之密度、黏度、折射率、表面張力研究
論文名稱(外文):Densities, Viscosities, Refractive Indexes and Surface Tensions for Binary and Ternary Mixtures of 2-Propanol, Tetrahydropyran, and 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
指導教授:杜建勳
指導教授(外文):Chien-Hsun Tu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:應用化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/07/
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:273
中文關鍵詞:密度黏度折射率表面張力
外文關鍵詞:ViscositiesDensitiesRefractive IndexesSurface Tensions
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汽油及石油碳氫化合物造成的環境污染是當前一重要的問題。在2006年年底,美國許多汽油經銷商已經停止使用甲基第三丁基醚作為含氧添加劑。因此,人們便開始研發更有效的含氧添加劑,例如:醇類及醚類化合物,這些化合物經常被加入新配方汽油中,增進辛烷值的提升及減少環境污染。
本研究是混合辛烷值提升劑與汽油中的碳氫化合物之物性實驗,本實驗中,2-丙醇(異丙醇)與四氫吡喃為作為辛烷值提升劑,而2,2,4-三甲基戊烷(異辛烷)則為汽油中的碳氫化合物。在一大氣壓下,我們依照不同的莫爾分率進行密度、黏度、折射率與表面張力的測量,三組雙成分系統的實驗溫度為 293.15 K、303.15 K、313.15 K 和 323.15 K;一組三成分系統的實驗溫度則為 303.15 K。密度的測量是藉由震盪管式密度計量測,黏度的測量是藉由落球式黏度計量測,折射率的測量是藉由阿貝折射率計量測,表面張力的測量是藉由白金片法之表面張力計量測。
藉由實驗值可計算出過剩莫爾體積值、黏度偏差值、莫爾分率折射率偏差值、體積分率折射率偏差值及表面張力偏差值;雙成分系統的過剩性質是由 Redlich-Kister 方程式關聯,而三成分的過剩性質是由Jasinski、Malanowski、Cibulka、Singh、Pintos、Calvo、Mascato 方程式及其延伸方程式關聯。我們並且將三成分的數據用 Redlich-Kister、Scatchard、Tsao-Smith、Toop、Kohler、Colinet 及 Jacob-Fitzner 方程式來作預測,另外,我們得知預測的結果顯示實驗值與估計值之間的偏差很小。
Environmental contamination by gasoline and other petroleum- derived hydrocarbons is a serious problem. By late 2006, most American gasoline retailers had ceased using MTBE as an oxygenate. Accordingly, people will develop more effective fuel oxygenates such as alcohols and ethers, they are frequently added to reformulated gasoline to improve the octane rating and reduce pollution.
This study presents some thermodynamic properties for mixtures of the oxygenated additives as octane enhancers in gasoline hydrocarbons. Gasoline hydrocarbon is 2,2,4-trimethylpentane(isooctane) and the blended octane enhancers are 2-propanol(isopropanol) and tetrahydropyran. At atmospheric pressure, we measured densities, viscosities, refractive indexs and surface tensions for the ternary system of 2-propanol + tetrahydropyran + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane at 303.15 K and three binary systems at 293.15 K, 303.15 K, 313.15 K, and 323.15 K over the entire composition range. Densities were determined by a vibrating-tube densimeter, viscosities were measured with a falling-ball viscometer, refractive indexes were measured with a thermostated Abbe refractometer, and surface tensions were measured with an automatic Wilhelmy-Plate tensiometer.
Excess molar volumes (VE), deviations in viscosity (Δη), deviations in refractive index (ΔxnD and ΔφnD ), and deviations in surface tension (Δσ) for the mixtures were obtained from experimental data. The binary data were correlated with liquid composition using the Redlich-Kister equation. For the ternary data, the Jasinski-Malanowski equation, Cibulka equation, Singh equation, Pintos equation, Calvo equation, Mascato equation, and other extended equations were respectively used to correlate ternary data. The ternary data were also predicted by using Redlich-Kister equation, Scatchard equation, Tsao-Smith equation, Toop equation, Kohler equation, Colinet equation, Jacob-Fitzner equation. The methods were applied to test the data validity in the system study; in addition, we got the low differences between estimated and experimental values.
中文摘要 Ι
英文摘要 Ш
目錄 V
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 XI
附表目錄 XXI
符號表 XXIII
主文
第一章 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 含氧添加劑的歷史發展 3
1-3 MTBE物理化學特性 4
1-4 相關文獻探討 6
第二章 實驗理論及討論 10
2-1 密度測量原理 10
2-1-1密度測量儀器 15
2-2 黏度測量原理 21
2-2-1黏度測量儀器 30
2-3 折射率測量原理 42
2-3-1折射率測量儀器 48
2-4 表面張力測量原理 49
2-4-1表面張力測量儀器 52
第三章 實驗儀器與實驗步驟 57
3-1 本實驗儀器介紹 57
3-2 實驗條件與藥品來源、純度 65
3-3 實驗前準備 73
3-4 實驗步驟 75
第四章 實驗結果與討 79
4.1 雙成分數據迴歸及討論 79
4.2 三成分數據迴歸及討論 90
第五章 實驗結論 99
參考文獻 230
附錄 242
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