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研究生:黃弘毅
研究生(外文):Hung-Yi Huang
論文名稱:台灣留英學生返國經驗與調適歷程之研究
論文名稱(外文):Returning Home From the U.K.- A Study on the Reentry Experiences and Coping Styles of Taiwanese Student Sojourners
指導教授:岑淑筱岑淑筱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Hsiao Tsen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:觀光事業學系研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008/07/
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:177
中文關鍵詞:返國留學生反向文化衝擊因應對策內外控人格
外文關鍵詞:Student sojournersreverse culture shockcoping styleslocus of control.
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在觀光的領域中,「文化衝擊」與「反向文化衝擊」在1980年代美國學生至海外研讀餐旅相關課程後受到學者的重視。本研究描繪出英國留學生返國後經歷之過渡期、反向文化衝擊及其使用之因應對策。以質性研究方式、立意抽樣選取10位年紀介於26至34歲之歸國留學生進行深度訪談。研究結果發現留學生花費1至6個月經歷過渡期中的角色及心理變化;學生的反向文化衝擊則包含與台灣人的相處、就業市場、生活環境與個人調適問題等4大項及14細項。此外調適的因應對策型態分為「主動Proactive」與「再社會化Resocialized」兩種;適應曲線分為U型及J型兩大類。所有的受訪者皆在返國後15個月內調適完成。
在影響返國適應因素中,男性受訪者調適期比女性短,年長的受訪者也比年輕的受訪者較無調適問題,旅居時回台次數也會縮短調適期,旅居地為都會區的留學生調適期比郊區的學生長,大部份的受訪者為外控人格,且外控人格的受訪者比內控人格者調適的快。除以上發現外,回台進入職場的準備度、先前的工作經驗與旅居時台灣資訊接收的多寡也會影響本研究受訪者的調適期。基於研究發現,研究者也給予學界及業界後續研究者相關建議。
In the tourism sector, studies of culture shock and reverse culture shock caught scholar’s attention in 1980s when lots of American students going overseas to attend hospitality programs. This study seeks to explore the reentry experiences, including transitions, reverse culture shock and coping styles they used during reentry adjustment. Employing qualitative research method, purposive sampling was used to conduct in-depth interviews with 10 returned student sojourners aged between 26 and 34. The findings show that returned student sojourners spent 1 to 6 months going through role changes and psychological changes during the transition period. In addition, four themes: Taiwanese people , the job market, the living environment and personal issues emerged describing returned student sojourners’ reverse culture shock during reentry. Moreover, returned student sojourners’ coping styles fall into the proactive and resocilaized re-enterers, and their curves of adjustment are U-shaped and J-shaped.
In regard to the three major factors affecting reentry, female student sojourners took more adjustment time than their male counterparts. Older student sojourners had less trouble with reentry. Frequency of home visits alleviates reentry difficulties. Students who sojourned in rural areas had less trouble with reentry. External student sojourners in their locus of control took less time than their internal counterparts. Moreover, previous work experience, readiness for the job and information received during the sojourn are new findings that might affect the participants in this study. Most returned student sojourners can adjust themselves back to Taiwan with 15 months following their reentry. The researcher also discusses the findings and provides some recommendations for future studies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS……...…………………………………………………….I
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………II
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..........................................................................................III
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………….........VI
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………...………………………………..........VII
LIST OF APPENDICES VIII


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research background and rationale of the study 1
1.2 Personal statement: The researcher’s reentry experience 4
1.3 Purpose of the study and potential significance 5
1.4 Research objectives 7
1.5 Definition of terms 9
1.6 Organization of the thesis 10

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.1 Reentry adjustment and transition 13
2.1.1 Reentry adjustment 13
2.1.2 Transitions 16
2.1.3 The transition stage models 17
2.2 Culture shock 18
2.2.1 What is culture shock? 19
2.2.2 Causes and symptoms of culture shock 21
2.2.3 Stage theories 22
2.2.4 Curves of adjustment 24
2.3 Reverse culture shock 28
2.3.1 What is reverse culture shock? 28
2.3.2 Causes and symptoms of reverse culture shock 28
2.3.3 Curves of adjustment 30
2.3.4 Studies of reverse culture shock 33
2.4 Factors affecting reentry adjustment 37
2.4.1 Personal background factors 37
2.4.2 Previous overseas sojourn factors 42
2.4.3 Reentry factors 44
2.5 Reentry coping styles 46
2.6 Chapter summary 48

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 49
3.1 Research approach 49
3.2 Research framework 50
3.3 Methods for data collection 52
3.3.1 In-depth interviews 52
3.3.2 Sampling and selection of participants 52
3.4 Procedure 56
3.5 Interview questions 57
3.6 Data analysis 59
3.7 Reliability and validity of the study 60
3.7.1 Reliability 60
3.7.2 Validity 61
3.8 Limitations of the study 62
3.9 Chapter summary 63

CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS OF THE STUDY 64
4.1 Introduction of the interview participants 64
4.1.1 Female participants 64
4.1.2 Male participants 69
4.2 Category I: Transitions 74
4.2.1 Transition stages 74
4.2.2 Role changes 79
4.2.3 Psychological changes 83
4.3 Category II: Reverse culture shock 88
4.3.1 Theme I: People 88
4.3.2 Theme II: The job market 96
4.3.3 Theme III: The living environment 101
4.3.4 Theme IV: Personal issues 110
4.4 Category III: Coping styles 114
4.5 Chapter summary 115

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION 116
5.1 Introduction 116
5.2 Transitions 116
5.2.1 Going through transitions is an inevitable process during reentry 116
5.2.2 Going through transitions is a learning experience 118
5.3 Reverse culture shock is the results of cultural comparisons 119
5.3.1 Interaction with Taiwanese people is the most serious reverse
culture shock 120
5.3.2 Value clashes on the Taiwanese job market 123
5.3.3 Student sojourners have to fit in the home environment again 123
5.4 Life after popping the bubble: Factors affecting reentry 127
5.4.1 Male student sojourners were more successful in reentry 127
5.4.2 Older student sojourners had less trouble with reentry 129
5.4.3 Different academic backgrounds may enhance job satisfaction 129
5.4.4 Six student sojourners were categorized as "external" and four of
them were categorized as "internal" in locus of control 129
5.4.5 Student sojourners who sojourned in rural areas had less
problems with reentry 131
5.4.6 Previous overseas experience did not affect reentry 133
5.4.7 Frequency of home visits alleviates reentry difficulty 134
5.4.8 Student sojourners have changed significantly due to the sojourn 134
5.4.9 Student sojourners view the home environment as unchanged 138
5.4.10 Previous work experiences, readiness for the job and information
received during the sojourn may affect reentry. 139
5.5 Proactive and resocialized re-enterers 140
5.6 U-shaped and J-shaped curves of adjustment 141
5.7 Chapter summary 142

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 144
6.1 Introduction 144
6.2 Conclusions 144
6.3 Recommendations for further research 152
6.3.1 Recommendations for academic researchers 152
6.3.2 Recommendations for human resource practitioners 153

REFERENCE 154



LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Visas issued for Taiwanese students 3
Table 2.1 Some possible symptoms of culture shock 22
Table 2.2 Symptoms of reverse culture shock 30
Table 2.3 Population sample in previous studies ....................................................34
Table 2.4 Factors in previous studies .......................................................................38
Table 3.1 Interview participants 55
Table 3.2 Semi-structured interview questions 58
Table 5.1 Interview participants'' transitions 119
Table 5.2 Interview participants'' reverse culture shock 126
Table 5.3 Personal background of the interview participants 128
Table 5.4 Locus of control of student sojourners 131
Table 5.5 Previous sojourn factors of the interview participants 133
Table 5.6 Reentry factors of the interview participants 136


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 The organization of the thesis…………………………………………12
Figure 2.1 U-curve of adjustment process…………………………………….......25
Figure 2.2 Levine and Adelman’s W-curve of adjustment process……………...26
Figure 2.3 W-curve of adjustment process ……………………………………….31
Figure 2.4 Levine and Adelman’s W-curve of adjustment process ……………..32
Figure 2.5 Adler’s four coping styles ……………...……………………………... 47
Figure 3.1 Research framework…...…………………………….............................51
Figure 4.1 Coping styles of the interview participants …………………….........115
Figure 5.1 Interview participants'' curves of adjustment ……………………….142

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1.1 Interview questions …………………………………………….... 162
Appendix 1.2 Interview participants’ curves of adjustment ……………….......163
Appendix 1.3 Coding symbol index ……………………………………………..165
Appendix 1.4 Rotter’s locus of control scale 166
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