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研究生:廖訂綸
研究生(外文):Alen Liao
論文名稱:焊接波紋管模片成形優化技術之研究
論文名稱(外文):An optimal forming process of metal membranes for welding bellows
指導教授:溫富亮
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:聖約翰科技大學
系所名稱:自動化及機電整合研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:焊接波紋管膜片模具學
外文關鍵詞:welding bellowsbeforedesignafter
相關次數:
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本論文為研究真空設備中不可或缺之撓性元件-焊接波紋管。本論文利用田口方法優化焊接波紋管製程,並針對其中最重要之兩大類製程進行探討:包含冲壓模具設計及焊接波紋管膜片焊接功能特性量測。焊接膜片、冲壓至焊接製程皆有環環相扣之交互影響,從最一開始金屬模開始冲壓膜片產生問題而改採複合模來解決,直到連續模才完善膜片冲壓,並針對優力膠壓力變化所產生的直徑尺寸改變進行探討。當冲壓之膜片未能達到所要求之尺寸精度時,將造成膜片焊接失敗。因此除了膜片精度要求外,模具在設計上必須考量膜片之金屬回彈(Spring back)量,並參考相關論文之最佳化波形進行設計與成形。
焊接波紋管在焊接製程上為先焊接A、B膜片內徑形成膜片對,後續再進行外徑焊接至所需長度,最後在進行平板端及連接塊之焊接。因此在治具設計尺寸上,必須有一定基準做為膜片之基準,方可使A、B膜片能對正內外徑位置完成焊接,以順利建構焊接波紋管之製程。
完成膜片焊接後,將焊接完之AM 350波紋管成品進行特性量測,參考相關論文,將AM 350焊接波紋管進行熱處理後再進行拉伸試驗,將拉伸試驗所得之結果與進口波紋管相互比較。並將拉伸破壞後之波紋管進行線切割,以維克氏微小硬度儀量測其硬度佳做比較,最後選定測試所用之焊接波紋管。
波紋管焊接為成品後,需進行壽命及功能測試。在測試時利用真空閥座做為測試載具,以氣壓缸為致動元件,並利用真空幫浦抽至負壓(或稱低壓)狀態,使焊接波紋管在真空環境下進行往復運作之壽命測試;並以真空計檢測腔體內之真空度,當波紋管破裂時將無法在保持真空,真空壽命測試動作將停止,並發出警訊顯示壽命測試結束。
Welded bellows, a flexible part which is necessary component in vacuum equipment, is studied in this paper. The Taguchi method is used to obtain the optimal processes of forming metal membranes for welded bellows. There are two types of important processes would be discussed: design the press die and functional measurement for all of bellows. A lot of interactive effects among every step in the manufacturing process for welded bellows, i.e., from membrane forming, welding to bellows’ functional testing. In the forming process, initially the single press die was used in the forming, however some problems were occurred during the forming; hence a compound die instead of. The compound die combined PU rubber (Polyurethane) is successful to achieve the forming for particular membrane’s profiles. Also the continuous die is developed to finish the goal of mass production. Next we also discuss that the pressure variation of PU rubbers during pressing how to affect the diameter of metal membranes.
When the membrane dimension after forming could not reach the request of accuracy, it would cause the membrane’s welded failed. Therefore, when the press die was designed by engineers, the amount of spring back of the metal membrane is considered. In addition, referred to relative papers, it is necessary to optimize the profile design for the press die and forming metal membranes. To construct of the welded bellows, the first step is to weld the inner circle of membranes (membrane A and B) to be the pair of membranes, and then to weld the outside circle of the pair. When the bellows reached the specified length, at last, it would be weld on the plane part and connection board to complete a desired bellow. Therefore, the design of a jig and a fixture for welding purpose must base on the membrane dimensions, these tools could be alignment the accuracy position to complete and accomplish the welding process.
After finishing the whole part, the measurement and testing for AM 350 welded bellows shall be implemented; usually, AM 350 material needs heat treatment before strength testing. The testing result must be compared to the commercial product bought from the trading market. Next, the micro-Viker’s hardness testing would be performed on a piece of AM350 metals via a wire cutting after heat treatment. The required testing for a well design and manufacturing welded bellow includes the life duration and functional quality. The testing equipment for the life duration consists of a vacuum valve as the testing carrier or loader, a cylinder as an actuator, a vacuum pump to generate a negative pressure environment, a vacuum gauge for the pressure monitoring, and other pipes and accessories. For life duration testing, the welded bellow is reciprocated in extension-shrinkage motion at a negative pressure environment and is detected by a vacuum gauge to determine the leakage or broken status of the welded bellow. If the vacuum gauge indicated the pressure is under the specified value, it means the using life of welded bellows coming to the end.

Keywords: welded bellow, die pressing, vacuum technology
中文摘要 .....…………………………………………………………………………….…...I
英文摘要 …..………………………………………………………………………….…….III
誌謝 ……………………………………………………………………....….…………….. IV
目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………………….V
表目錄 …………………………………………………………………………………….VIII
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………………IX

第一章 緒論 ……..…………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 前言 ……..…………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 文獻回顧 ..…………………………………………………………………………2
1.3 研究動機與目的 …..………………………………………………………………5
1.4 研究方法 …………………………………………………………………………..6
1.5 論文架構 …………………………………………………………………………..6
第二章 製程原理及實驗法 ……………………………………………………………...10
2.1田口實驗法 …………………………………………………………………….…10
2.2 微電漿電弧焊接及原理 …………………………………………………………11
2.3 真空原理 …………………………………………………………………………12
第三章 焊接波紋管製造方法 ………………………………………………………...…14
3.1焊接波紋管之構造 ……………………………………………………………….14
3.2焊接波紋管之製造程序 ………………………………………………………….14
3.2.1 冲模模具設計與製作 ……………………………………………………...14
3.2.2 材料剪切與冲壓 …………………………………………………………...15
3.2.3 焊接製程與夾具設計 ……………………………………………………...15
3.2.4焊接前置處理 ………………………………………………………………17
3.2.5焊接治具設計 ……………………………………………………………....17
3.2.6膜片清洗 ……………………………………………………………………18
3.2.7波紋管之焊接 ………………………………………………………………18
3.2.8清潔與包裝 ………………………………………………………………....19
3.3 波紋管之檢測 ……………………………………………………………………19
3.3.1 非破壞性測試 ……………………………………………………………...20
3.3.2 破壞性測試 ………………………………………………………………...20
第四章 模具考量及影響因素 ……………………………………………………………30
4.1 .AM350回彈量計算 ……………………………………………………………...30
4.2 膜片檢測 …………………………………………………………………………31
4.2.1 膜片回彈量測 ……………………………………………………………...32
4.3 金屬模冲壓 ………………………………………………………………………32
4.4 複合模冲壓 ……………………………………………………………………. ..33
4.4.1 外觀檢測 ……………………………………………………………….......34
4.4.2 尺寸檢測 …………………………………………………………………...35
4.4.3 膜片檢測 …………………………………………………………………...35
4.5 連續模的設計 ……………………………………………………………………36
4.6 模具比較 …………………………………………………………………………37
第五章 影響焊接波紋管之因素及特性量測 …………………………………………...63
5.1 分析優力膠效應 …………………………………………………………………63
5.2 成形模具設計 ……………………………………………………………………63
5.3 .AM 350之熱處理 ……………………………………………………………......64
5.4 撓度測試 …………………………………………………………………………66
5.5..疲勞測試………………………………………………………………………......67
5.5.1疲勞測試機設計 ……………………………………………………………67
5.5.2疲勞測試 ……………………………………………………………………68
第六章 結果與建議 ……………………………………………………………………...81
6.1 結論 ………………………………………………………………………………81
6.2..建議 ………………………………………………………………………………82

參考文獻 …………………………………………………………………………………...83
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