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研究生:朱永瑞
研究生(外文):ju yung ruei
論文名稱:原級絕對輻射熱量計之研發
論文名稱(外文):Development of the Primary Absolute Radiometer
指導教授:李友竹
指導教授(外文):Yu-Chu M.Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:163
中文關鍵詞:對稱式差分感測微影製程感溫電阻式感測器
外文關鍵詞:symmetrically differential sensingmicro-lithographic processresistor-type temperature sensor
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審視現今諸多太陽能源的收集方式,不論實現能源轉換方法為何,主要仍以太陽能應用產品的收集與轉換效率之高低為判斷是否具備競爭力與商業價值之依歸,實務上此亦攸關了太陽能產業最在乎的成本效益與競爭能力。然而,判斷能源轉換效率的高低與否,則需依賴可靠的機密量測儀器與技術,方能客觀評估出各種產品間之優劣。此外,對於太陽能輻射熱量計檢測技術之能力表現,事實上,可以相對應地看出一個國家太陽能產業的研發能力,而當中以原級絕對輻射熱量計之比對校正,最能展現一個國家對太陽輻射能量檢測技術與品質傳遞鏈之能力。不過,除了太陽能產業需要絕對輻射熱量計的技術,光電產業亦須依賴低溫狀態下工作的絕對輻射熱量計,對光源進行絕對輻射量檢測,進以提升光學元件之量測準確度。
本研究利用3D電腦繪圖軟體Solidworks建立起相關感溫電阻式感測器之模型,再以有限元素數值模擬套件COSMOS Floworks分別模擬出規畫的感測器尺寸之固體溫度、熱通量、密度、熱傳係數、流體溫度、固體材料與周圍環境溫度變化。經由結果分析及比較,發現厚度0.1mm較為穩定,且較符合加工需求。本研究為尋求最佳製程方法來製備感溫電阻式感測器,經不斷改進製程上遇到之瓶頸與不斷修正方法,最終所採取的方法具備成本低廉且高產率之優勢。首先,利用電著塗裝製程披覆銅材表面之絕緣層,係於銅材表面電著一層非金屬陶瓷塗裝材料,具有耐腐蝕與抗氧化之優異特性,而其電著後表面呈現五彩黑亮光滑之外觀,經測量其熱輻射放射率,平均值較未經電著過之銅片的數值為小,研判應是經電著過後之銅材表面具有非金屬的放射率,具有隨溫度升高而減小之特性。由於電著塗裝過後的銅片安定性佳,與光阻劑或顯影劑無任何化學或物理反應,絕緣性良好且耐磨耗,接續使用微影製程施作後,可將產能及良率提高約數倍。



完成對稱式差分感測系統的機體組裝後,經由一系列人工光源測試,得到的感溫電阻式感測器對光源之非線性感應曲線與國外相關研究所模擬出之結果相當吻合。不過,於人工光源測試之際,在感測器外圍加上保護襯套,確實可以將外界溫度所造成影響降至最低,充份提高其感溫靈敏度。
本研究應用了控溫熱傳導、熱量轉移即時監控以及微影製程等技術,對光學光源檢測用原級絕對輻射熱量計進行開發研究,藉此建立國內自有光學檢測設備與技術。由於目前應用於太陽能的原級絕對輻射熱量計絕大多數採用腔體內常溫非對稱式感測之操作方式,本研究改以對稱式差分感測方式進行設計建造,藉此以提升檢測光學光源能量解析度以及靈敏度,進而可與世界其他國家一較長短。
In consideration of many a collection method of solar energy nowadays, the potential for competition and marketing depends on transform efficiencies of solar energy products, in spite of energy collection and transform ways, and practically has a concern in cost margins and competitive capability of solar energy industry. However, how to judge transform efficiencies of solar energy products relies on precise instruments and measurement techniques. Besides, the measurement ability of solar radiation can in fact demonstrate the national research power of solar energy industry. Especially, the international comparison of primary absolute radiometers reflects the national capability of measurement technology and laboratory quality chain. Not only solar energy industry needs the technology of primary absolute radiometer, but also opto-electronic industry much needs the technology primary absolute radiometer to calibrate standard light sources, so as to improve the accuracy of opto-electronic devices.
This study employed the 3D computer-aided-design software Solidworks to model each resistor-type temperature sensor. Then, the finite element analysis package COSMOS Floworks was applied to simulate solid temperature, heat flux, density, heat transfer coefficient, fluid temperature, and ambient temperature of each modeled resistor-type temperature sensor. By way of analysis and comparison to all simulated results, thickness 0.1mm of copper plate was found to be the best dimension for the resistor-type temperature sensors due to the better stability and ease for manufacturing. This research tried to seek the best way for low cost to manufacture the electric circuit of resistor-type temperature sensor. With the aid of electro-deposition process, the colorful dark films of ceramic property can resist corrosion and oxidation, and possess lower thermal emittance than the original copper plate due to the nonmetallic property in the matrix. After electro-deposition process, the micro-lithographic patterns made via the ordinary LIGA (Lithographie GalVanoformung Abformung) process worked well owing to the inert property of electro-deposition coatings to the applied photo-resistor. The excellent electric insulation and wear resistance of electro-deposition coatings coupled with the micro-lithographic process make much better process yield and throughput of resistor-type temperature sensors possible.
After the symmetrically differential sensing system was assembled, a sequential testing via an artificial light source was made, and the results were similar to those predicted theoretically from the literature. During testing, a guard ring has to be put around resistor-type temperature sensors to prevent the disturbance from the ambient, and the detection sensitivity can be raised.


This research applied the heat transfer control technology, heat transfer in-time monitoring technique and micro-lithographic process to develop a primary absolute radiometer of controlled temperature for solar radiation detection. Because the cavities of most radiometer for solar radiation in the world work above the room temperature, this research developed the symmetrically differential sensing method which is different from the ways by other countries, so as to improve the sensitivity and energy resolution of the primary absolute radiometer. Thus, this domestically built primary absolute radiometer can compete with similar equipments of other countries.
摘 要 III
英文摘要 VII
誌 謝 VII
目 次 VIII
第一章 研究背景與目的的 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 光度學與輻射學度量量測上之比較 3
1.3 本研究之目的 6
第二章 原理與方法 8
2.1輻射量測原理 8
2.1.1 光度學簡介 8
2.1.2 熱輻射學簡介 12
2.1.3 輻射度標準與輻射量量測方式 15
2.1.4 光度標準與光度量測方式 19


2.2 輻射熱量計之分類與工作方式 23
2.2.1 各式輻射熱量計之簡介 25
2.3示差掃描型熱量計原理 32
2.4 熱電致冷之原理 35
第三章 原型建造與分析 39
3.1 設計與分析方式 39
3.2 感測器熱傳模式與理論分析 41
3.2.1 熱傳導原理 43
3.2.2 自然對流熱傳原理 47
3.2.3 熱輻射熱傳遞原理 49
3.3 感溫電阻式感測器之設計方法與製程 50
3.3.1 電著製程原理 53
3.3.2 吸收率與放射率量測 58
3.3.3 電子束蒸鍍原理 62


3.4 腔體結構與光路設計 70
3.4.1 腔體內部感溫電阻式感測器擺放設計 70
3.4.2 主動式前置擋光板 72
3.4.3 擋光板 73
3.4.5 散熱銅塊與致冷晶片模組 74
3.4.6 設計創新之處 75
第四章 結果與討論 77
4.1 感溫電阻式感測器熱傳模擬之結果 77
4.1.1 感溫電阻式感測器內部底材之模擬結果 80
4.1.2 銅片邊緣固體溫度熱傳分析結果 92
4.1.3 銅片邊緣熱傳係數之模擬結果 96
4.1.4 銅片邊緣氣體密度變化之模擬結果 100
4.1.5 模擬流體溫度場之結果 104
4.1.6 銅片熱通量之模擬結果 108
4.1.7 銅片周圍溫度場之模擬結果 112
4.1.8 模擬銅片邊緣表面熱傳之結語 116



4.2 光源入射角度與照射時間對熱傳特性之影響 118
4.2.1 光源入射角度對熱傳特性之影響 118
4.2.2 光源照射時間對熱傳特性之影響 128
4.3 感溫電阻式感測器製程之探討 132
4.3.1 絕緣層製作結果 132
4.3.2 感溫電阻式感測器蒸鍍線路製程 138
4.3.3 製程總結後語 147
4.4 絕對輻射熱量計實測結果 150
4.5 加熱追溫測試結果 155
第五章 結論 163
表目錄 XII
圖目錄 XIII
參考文獻XVIII
符號彙編 XIII
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