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研究生:陳浩瑋
研究生(外文):Chen Hao-wei
論文名稱:台灣外籍老師對當兒童美語教師的觀點
論文名稱(外文):Native Speakers' Perception about Being a Teacher of Cram Schools for Youth in Taiwan
指導教授:張韶華張韶華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang Shao-hua
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:170
中文關鍵詞:補習班外籍教師教學教法
外文關鍵詞:cram schoolsnative speaking teachersteaching methods
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中文摘要

本研究旨在了解以英文為母語的外籍教師對於臺灣兒美補習班的看法及教學信念研究。受試者為4名來自台南某連鎖兒美補習班之外籍教師。主要藉由面談,教室觀察及日誌紀錄來收集資料。分析所得資料後得到以下結論。

主要發現如下
1. 受訪者認為臺灣人的英語程度不錯,主要是因為台灣人會使用基本的英語來幫助在台灣的外國人解決他們所遭遇到的問題。 另一方面,受訪者認為台灣的英語學習環境還有待加強。
2. 關於學習英文的最好時機,受訪者認為沒有特定比較好的時機,但是他們同意越早學習對於習得語言的能力越有幫助。
3. 關於文化震撼,受訪者認為臺灣小孩花在學校及補習班的時間過多,這是讓他們感到很驚訝的地方。他們也認為臺灣的小孩非常有規距。
4. 關於成為外籍兒美教師的動機,受訪者表示因為他們對於教兒童美語有著高度的熱忱。
5. 關於外籍老師的教學方法及過程,受訪者表示他們一般都照著補習班提供的課程計劃來授課,課前會先預習今日課程,課後會有中籍老師幫他們處理學生的問題。
6. 關於教室管理及師生關係,受訪者表示禁止說中文是一定會要求的。此外也要求學生一定要尊敬老師。基本上,受訪者表示不會用體罰的方式來處罰學生,會多給予口頭上的鼓勵,因此和學生保持著很好的互動關係。
7. 關於教學挑戰,受訪者表示最大的困難在於要去教學生程度差異大的班級。
8. 關於教師自我評鑑及期望,受訪者認為他們一旦發現教學上有任何問題時,
會馬上設法修正,對於未來期望,受訪者希望努力使兒童美語環境變得更好。
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to explore English native speaking teachers’ perceptions about current English cram school for youth in Taiwan and explore their beliefs for teaching. The participants were four English native speaking teachers from the English cram schools in Tainan City. In this research, the researcher conducted a qualitative method which involved adopting the interviews, observations, and journals to collect the data.
The main findings were shown in the following:

1. The participants considered that Taiwanese English proficiency was good because people were very willing to help foreigners deal with the problems in daily life by using simple English vocabulary, phrases and sentences. However, they believed that providing good environment for learning English could be improved.
2. Regarding the ideal timing for learning a new language, the participants could not point out the best timing for people to learn a new language. They held the belief that the earlier, the better.
3. Regarding the culture shock, most of the participants were very surprised at the hours on which the children in Taiwan spent at schools and cram schools every day. Furthermore, although children in Taiwan were under such a big pressure, they found that children in Taiwan were very well-mannered.
4. Concerning the motivation of the native speaker for being an English teacher of youth, the participants all had high enthusiasm for being an English teacher of youth.
5. Regarding the native teachers’ teaching methods and procedure, the participants described that they usually followed the lesson plans provided by the cram schools to teach in class. Before class, most of them would preview and take notes about the lessons they wanted to instruct that day. After class, the Chinese English teachers would deal with the students’ problems instead of the native teachers.
6. All of the participants had a common rule, and that was “No Chinese” in the classroom. Additionally, they asked the students to respect teachers. Most of them did not give physical punishments to students. The teachers also mentioned that they often gave oral praise to students who had good performance in class and also encouraged students who were shy to participate in the activities. Consequently, they always kept good relationship with children in the classroom.
7. Regarding the teaching challenge, the participants considered that the biggest challenge was to teach children with diverse English competence in one class.
8. With regard to self-evaluation and expectations, the participants mentioned that they altered the teaching methods immediately when they encountered some problems in their teaching. Their common expectations were to make a better environment for youth to learn English and let children study English under an ideal environment.
Table of Contents
Page
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
List of Tables xxi
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study………………………………………………................... 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………….................. 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………………. 4
1.4 Significance of the Study………………………………………………….............. 4
1.5Organization of the Study………………………………………………………….. 5
1.6Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………………… 5
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Native-speaker Craze in English Language Teaching………………………... 8
2.1.2 Culture Shock ……………………………………………………………….. 9
2.1.3 The Relationship between Language and Culture…………………………... 10
2.1.4 Comparing Eastern and Western Values about Education………………….. 11
2.1.5 Understanding Culture Shock……………………………………………….. 12
2.2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of NST and Non-NST………………………. 14
2.2.1 Defining the Native and Non-native speakers………………………………. 14
2.2.2 The Difference between NSTs and NNSTs………………………………….. 15
2.2.3 Recent Studies Concerning Native Speaking Teachers in Taiwan…………... 19
2.3 An Ideal English Teacher for Youth…...…………………………………………... 20
2.3.2 The Types of Teachers’ Beliefs……………………………………………… 21
2.3.3 The Beliefs of English Teachers for Youth…………………………………. 22
2.3.4 Critical Hypothesis…………………………………………………………... 23
2.3.5 Critical Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition……………………… 25
2.3.6 Classroom Management……………………………………………………... 26
2.3.6.2 The Principles of Classroom Management…………………………. 26
2.3.6.3 The Skills of Classroom Management……………………………… 27
2.3.7 How to Enhance Learning Motivation……………………………………..... 29
2.3.8 Teacher-Student Relationship………………………………………………... 31
2.3.8.2 Useful Ways of Improving the Relationship………………………... 32
2.3.9 Teachers’ Self Evaluation………………………………………………........ 33
2.4 Cram Schools……………………………………………………………………… 33
2.4.2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Cram School……………………….. 35
Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………... 37
3.2 Research Design……………………………………………………....................... 37
3.3 Research Site……………………………………………………………………… 38
3.4 Participants………………………………………………………………………… 39
3.5 Role of the Researcher…………………………………………………………….. 40
3.6 Data Collection……………………………………………………………………. 41
3.6.1 Interview…………………………………………………………………….. 41
3.6.2 Teachers’ Journal…………………………………………………………….. 41
3.6.3 Classroom Observation……………………………………………………… 42
3.7 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………… 42
Chapter 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The First Participant Jeff…………………………………………………..................... 44
4.1 Jeff’s Belief about Learning English in Taiwan………………................................ 44
4.1.1 Acknowledgement of Taiwanese English Proficiency………………………. 45
4.1.2 Timing for Learning a New Language………………………......................... 46
4.1.3 Suggestion for Learning a Foreign Language……………………………….. 47
4.2 Jeff’s Belief about Teaching Children English in Cram School…………………... 48
4.2.1 Culture Shock………………………………………………………………... 48
4.2.2 Teaching Method……………………………………………………………. 50
4.2.3 Description of Teaching Procedure………………………………………….. 52
4.2.4 Methods of Motivating Learners…..……………………………………….. 53
4.2.5 Teacher-Student Relationship……………………………………………….. 54
4.2.6 Classroom Management……………………………………………………... 54
4.2.7 Teaching Challenge………………………………………………………….. 56
4.2.8 The biggest Flaw of this Cram School……………………............................. 57
4.3 Jeff’s Belief about Self-efficacy and Expectations……………............................... 58
4.3.1 Motivation of Being an English Teacher for Youth in Taiwan………………. 58
4.3.2 Difference between Babysitter and English Teacher of Youth……………… 59
4.3.3 Pros and Cons of Native Speaking Teacher…………………………………. 60
4.3.4 Qualities for a Perfect English Teacher for Youth…………………………... 60
4.3.5 Self-evaluation………………………………………………......................... 61
4.3.6 Self-achievement……………………………………………………………. 61
4.4 Summary of Jeff’s Beliefs about Being an English Teacher for Youth in Taiwanese Cram Schools………………………………………………………….
62
Chapter 5: The Second Participant Sheeri
5.1 Sheeri’s Belief about Learning English in Taiwan……………….. 64
5.1.1 Acknowledgement of Taiwanese English Proficiency…………………. ….. 64
5.1.2Taiwan’s Environment for Learning English………………………………… 65
5.1.3 Timing for Learning a New Language…………………………..................... 66
5.1.4 Suggestion for Learning a Foreign Language……………………………….. 67
5.2 Sheeri’s Belief about Teaching Children English in Cram School……………… 67
5.2.1 Culture Shock……………………………………………………………….. 68
5.2.2 Teaching Method………………………………….......................................... 69
5.2.3 Description of Teaching Procedure………………………………………..... 69
5.2.4 Classroom Management…………………………………………………….. 72
5.2.5 Methods of Motivating Learners……………………………………………. 73
5.2.6 Teacher-Student Relationship……………………………………………….. 74
5.2.7 Teaching Challenge………………………………………………………….. 75
5.2.8 The biggest Flaw of this Cram School………………………………............. 75
5.2.9 Training Programs for New Teachers……………………………………….. 76
5.2.9.1 The Procedure of Training…………………………………………… 76
5.2.9.2 The Requirements for New Teachers………………………………… 78
5.2.9.3 The TEFL Certification Program for New Teachers…………………. 79
5.2.9.4 The Teaching Support from the School………………………………. 79
5.2.9.5 Conclusions of Training Programs…………………………………… 80
5.3 Sheeri’s Belief about Self-efficacy and Expectations……………........................... 80
5.3.1 Motivation of Being an English Teacher for Youth in Taiwan……………..... 80
5.3.2 Difference between Babysitter and English Teacher of Youth……………… 81
5.3.3 Pros and Cons of Native Speaking Teacher…………………………………. 82
5.3.4 Qualities for a Perfect English Teacher for Youth……………………........... 83
5.3.5 Self-evaluation……………………………………………............................. 83
5.3.6 Self-achievement…………………………………………………………….. 84
5.4 Summary of Sheeri’s Beliefs about Being an English Teacher for Youth in Taiwanese Cram Schools................................................................................................
85
Chapter 6: The Third Participant John
6.1 John’s Belief about Learning English in Taiwan……………….............................. 87
6.1.1 Acknowledgement of Taiwanese English Proficiency………………………. 87
6.1.2 Timing for Learning a New Language……………………............................ 88
6.1.3 Suggestion for Learning a Foreign Language………………………………. 89
6.2 John’s Belief about Teaching Children English in Cram School………………… 90
6.2.1 Teachers’ Insistence……………………………………………..................... 90
6.2.2 Culture Shock……………………………………………………………….. 91
6.2.3 Teaching Method………………………………………………..................... 92
6.2.4 Description of Teaching Procedure………………………………………….. 93
6.2.5 Encouragement and Punishment for Learning English……………………… 95
6.2.6 Classroom Management……………………………………………………... 96
6.2.7 The Biggest Challenge…………….. ………………………………………. 97
6.2.8 The Pros and Cons of This Cram School…………………………................ 98
6.3 John’s Belief about Self-efficacy and Expectations………………………………. 99
6.3.1 Motivation of Being an English Teacher of Youth in Taiwan……………….. 99
6.3.2 Qualities for a Perfect English Teacher for Youth…………………………… 100
6.3.3 Difference between Babysitter and English Teacher of Youth……………… 101
6.3.4 Self-evaluation…………………………………………………..................... 102
6.4 Summary of John’s Beliefs about Being an English Teacher for Youth in Taiwanese Cram Schools………………………………………………………………
103
Chapter 7: The Forth Participant Taz
7.1 Taz’s Belief about Learning English in Taiwan…………………………………… 106
7.1.1 Acknowledgement of Taiwanese English Proficiency………………………. 106
7.1.2 Taiwan Cram School’s Environment for Learning English…………………. 107
7.1.3 Timing for Learning a New Language………………………........................ 107
7.1.4 Suggestion for Learning a Foreign Language………………………………. 108
7.2 Taz’s Belief about Teaching Children English in Cram School…………………… 109
7.2.1 Culture Shock……………………………………………………………….. 109
7.2.2 Teaching Method…………………………………….................................... 110
7.2.3 Description of Teaching Procedure…………………………………………. 111
7.2.4 Methods of Motivating Learners…………………………………..…… 112
7.2.5 Classroom Management…………………………………………………….. 113
7.2.6 Teacher-Student Relationship……………………………………………….. 113
7.2.7 Teaching Challenge………………………………………………………….. 114
7.2.8 The biggest Flaw in This Cram School………………………….................... 115
7.3 Taz’s Belief about Self-efficacy and Expectations……………................................ 115
7.3.1 Difference between Babysitter and English Teacher of Youth……………… 116
7.3.2 Motivation of Being an English Teacher of Youth in Taiwan…………..…… 117
7.3.3 Pros and Cons of Native Speaking Teacher…………………………………. 117
7.3.4 Qualities for a Perfect English Teacher for Youth...…………………………. 118
7.3.5 Self-evaluation…………………………………………………..................... 119
7.3.6 Self-achievement…………………………………………………………….. 120
7.4 Summary of Taz’s Beliefs about Being an English Teacher for Youth in Taiwanese Cram Schools………………………………………………………………
120
Chapter 8: Comparison among Four Participants’ Beliefs
8.1 The Four participants’ Belief about Learning English in Taiwan………………... 123
8.1.1 Acknowledgement of Taiwanese English Proficiency…………………........ 123
8.1.2 Taiwan’s Environment for Learning English……………………………….. 125
8.1.3 Timing for Learning a New Language……………………………………… 126
8.1.4 Suggestions for Learning a Foreign Language……………………………… 128
8.2 The Four Participants’ Belief about Teaching Children English in Cram School…. 130
8.2.1 Culture Shock………………………………………………………………... 130
8.2.2 Teaching Method….......................................................................................... 131
8.2.3 Description of Teaching Procedure………………………………………….. 133
8.2.4 Methods of Motivating Learners……………………………………….. 135
8.2.5 Classroom Management……………………………………………………… 137
8.2.6 Teacher-Student Relationship………………………………………………… 138
8.2.7 Teaching Challenge…………………………………...................................... 139
8.2.8 The Pros and Cons of This Cram School…………………………………….. 141
8.3 The Four Participants’ Belief about Self-efficacy and Expectations……………... 143
8.3.1 Motivation of Being a English Teacher of Youth in Taiwan…………………. 143
8.3.2 Difference between Babysitter and English Teacher of Youth…………......... 144
8.3.3 Pros and Cons of Native Speaker Teacher…………………………………… 144
8.3.4 Qualities for a Perfect English Teacher for Youth…………………………… 146
8.3.5 Self-evaluation……………………………………………………………… 147
8.3.6 Self-achievement……………………………………………………………. 148
8.4 Summary of the Participants’ Beliefs about Being an English Teacher for Youth in Taiwanese Cram Schools……………………………………………………………
149
Chapter 9: CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
9.1 Main Findings of the Research…………………………………............................. 152
9.2 Implications for English Education ……………………………………………….. 155
9.3 Recommendations for Future Research…..…………………………...................... 156
9.4 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………... 157
Reference…………………………………………………………………. 158

List of Tables
Table 1: Annual world book publications in 131 languages…………………………... 2
Table 2: Perceived Differences in Teaching Behavior Between NSTs and Non-NSTs.. 16

APPENDIXES
Appendix A Interview Questions…………………………………………………... 168
Appendix B Classroom Observation Guide of Field Note Taking………………… 170
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