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研究生:LauriNiilisk
研究生(外文):Lauri Niilisk
論文名稱(外文):Occupational, Commuting and Leisure-Time Physical Activity mong Occupational Categories in Estonia
指導教授:劉俊昌劉俊昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenn-Chang Liou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:亞洲大學
系所名稱:健康管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:醫管學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:Physical activityoccupational categoriesworkers.
外文關鍵詞:Physical activityoccupational categoriesworkers.
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Background and purpose. Adults in lower status occupational groups are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, for which physical inactivity is the major risk factor. Moderate and high levels of leisure time, occupational and commuting physical activity have been shown to be associated with a reduced CVD and all-cause mortality among both sexes. The purpose of the study is to examine occupational, commuting, leisure time and total physical activity and explore which occupational category in Estonia would be more likely sufficiently active or inactive for cardio-respiratory fitness.

Method. The secondary data was obtained from the study Health Behavior among Estonian Adult Population 2006. The self-completion questionnaire was used to examine both self-reported occupational, commuting, leisure time, and total physical activity of adult professional, associate, machine operators and craftsman category for males (n=767) and professional, office clerks, service/sales worker, craftswomen, homemakers and elementary workers category for females (n=1097). Chi square analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations between occupational category membership in different physical activity domain separately for male and female.

Results. After adjustment for age, education, body mass index, marital status, nationality, smoking and income, this study has found that total physical activity is distinct among different occupational category; the higher risk groups of total physical inactivity are machine operators [OR=2.05 (0.94-4.49)] and professional workers [OR=1.67 (0.82-3.43)] category among male respondents and office clerks [OR=8.46 (3.26-21.94)], craftswomen [OR=4.90 (1.71-14.05)] and professional [OR=4.24 (1.56-11.57)] category among female respondents.

Discussion. The findings are partially consistent with other studies, which have found lower status occupational workers to have higher total physical activity. But the exceptions of this study are the machine operators’ category for the male and craftswomen category for the female, who being also relatively lower occupational status, report higher total physical inactivity.

Conclusion. Machine operators and professional category among male and office clerks, craftswomen and professional occupational category workers have higher total physical inactivity.
Background and purpose. Adults in lower status occupational groups are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, for which physical inactivity is the major risk factor. Moderate and high levels of leisure time, occupational and commuting physical activity have been shown to be associated with a reduced CVD and all-cause mortality among both sexes. The purpose of the study is to examine occupational, commuting, leisure time and total physical activity and explore which occupational category in Estonia would be more likely sufficiently active or inactive for cardio-respiratory fitness.

Method. The secondary data was obtained from the study Health Behavior among Estonian Adult Population 2006. The self-completion questionnaire was used to examine both self-reported occupational, commuting, leisure time, and total physical activity of adult professional, associate, machine operators and craftsman category for males (n=767) and professional, office clerks, service/sales worker, craftswomen, homemakers and elementary workers category for females (n=1097). Chi square analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations between occupational category membership in different physical activity domain separately for male and female.

Results. After adjustment for age, education, body mass index, marital status, nationality, smoking and income, this study has found that total physical activity is distinct among different occupational category; the higher risk groups of total physical inactivity are machine operators [OR=2.05 (0.94-4.49)] and professional workers [OR=1.67 (0.82-3.43)] category among male respondents and office clerks [OR=8.46 (3.26-21.94)], craftswomen [OR=4.90 (1.71-14.05)] and professional [OR=4.24 (1.56-11.57)] category among female respondents.

Discussion. The findings are partially consistent with other studies, which have found lower status occupational workers to have higher total physical activity. But the exceptions of this study are the machine operators’ category for the male and craftswomen category for the female, who being also relatively lower occupational status, report higher total physical inactivity.

Conclusion. Machine operators and professional category among male and office clerks, craftswomen and professional occupational category workers have higher total physical inactivity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS-II
ABSTRACT-III
TABLE OF CONTENTS-IIV
LIST OF TABLES-V
LIST OF FIGURES-VI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION-1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations-1
1.2 The Purpose of the study-2
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW-4
2.1 Conceptual framework-4
2.2 Literature review from other countries-5
2.3 Literature review from Estonia-7
CHAPTER THREE METHOD-9
3.1.1. Conceptual framework-9
3.1.2. The operational definitions of the study-10
3.1.2. The Procedure-12
3.1.1 Subjects-12
3.1.2 Questionnaire-13
3.1.4 Physical activity-13
3.2.1 Statistical methods-14
3.2.2 Descriptive statistic analysis-15
3.2.3 Logistic regression analysis-15
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS-16
4.1. Sample characteristics-16
4.2. Different occupational category participation in occupational,commuting and leisure time physical activity-20
4.3. Factors influencing insufficient occupational,commuting,leisure time and total physical activity-23
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION-33
5.1 Discussion-33
5.2 Hypothesis confirmation-35
5.3 Limitation of the study-36
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION-38
6.1 Conclusion-38
6.2 Recommendations-38
REFERENCES-41
APPENDIX Translation of the questionnaire -45
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