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研究生:陳世昌
研究生(外文):Shih-Chang Chen
論文名稱:可攜式裝置平台上兩段式動態電壓/頻率調整之能耗最佳化研究
論文名稱(外文):Energy Aware Dual-Speed Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling on Portable Devices
指導教授:梁文耀梁文耀引用關係
口試委員:張陽郎阮聖彰方志鵬
口試日期:2008-01-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:53
中文關鍵詞:能量消耗行動裝置動態電壓調整動態頻率調整Intel PXA270
外文關鍵詞:Energy consumptionPortable devicesDVSDFSIntel PXA270
相關次數:
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
隨著近年來行動裝置深入人們的日常生活當中,功率消耗的研究在可攜式裝置上已變成重要的系統設計議題。多數行動裝置如PDA、智慧型手機與筆記型電腦目前皆已支援動態電壓/頻率調整(Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, DVFS),而動態電壓/頻率調整則是被公認為降低能量消耗最有效的技術之一。本論文研究即針對行動通訊裝置提出一套完整可行的硬、軟體系統架構,根據英特爾(Intel)所提的軟體框架加以修改,利用效能監控單元(Performance Monitoring Unit, PMU)監控處理器程式執行狀況,從整體系統運作觀點去動態調整電壓/頻率進而達到降低能耗的目的並延長電池的使用時間。
本研究以Creator PXA270開發板為實驗平台,執行數個效能測試程式(Benchmarks)並量測能耗,依程式特性之不同,計算出最佳能耗速度 (Critical Speed),進而提出一即時動態調整電壓/頻率之演算法(Energy Aware - Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, EA-DVFS)然後實作於Linux 核心。研究數據顯示,使用此演算法之系統比沒有使用之系統更能有效降低20%以上的能耗。
總體而言,此研究主要探討處理器的使用率(Utilization)與能耗(Energy Consumption)間的動態關係,並進一步了解程式的特性如何影響其策略選用。
In recent years, the use of mobile devices has become highly integrated into people’s daily lives. The study of power consumption has become an important system design issue on portable devices. Many mobile systems such as PDAs, smart phones, and laptops have currently supported dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) during the system operating, and DVFS is considered as one of most efficient techniques to decrease energy consumption. This paper demonstrates an adaptive hardware and software systems architecture on mobile devices. We modify software power management framework, which is based on Intel® XScaleTM platforms, and take advantage of monitoring the performance monitoring unit (PMU) for the usage of processor to adjust voltage and frequency dynamically in order to reduce power consumption on system, meanwhile, extend the lifetime of battery. This paper is experimented on Creator PXA270 development board, and measure relative energy consumption with several benchmarks. According to the characters of different programs, we calculate the critical speed of minimal energy consumption, and present a runtime algorithm (Energy Aware - Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, EA-DVFS), and then we implement in Linux kernel. Results of the experiments showed the energy consumption of system, which used EA-DVFS algorithm, is lower 20 percent at least than the one without the algorithm. This study mainly investigates the dynamic relationship between processor utilization and energy consumption, as well as providing a better understanding of how characters of programs related to the strategy use.
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Contribution 2
1.3 Thesis Structure 2
Chapter 2 RELATED WORK 4
2.1 Background 4
2.2 Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling 4
2.2.1 DVFS on Hard Real-Time Applications 5
2.2.2 DVFS on Soft Real-Time Applications 6
2.3 Dynamic Power Management 8
2.3.1 Timeout Policy 10
2.3.2 Predictive Technique 10
2.3.3 Stochastic Process 10
Chapter 3 ENERGY AWARE SYSTEM DESIGN 11
3.1 Terminology and System Model 11
3.2 Energy Aware DVFS (EA-DVFS) 17
Chapter 4 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE 20
4.1 Hardware Power Management Mechanism 20
4.1.1 Functional Overview 20
4.1.2 Power-Consumption Specifications 22
4.1.3 Performance Monitioring Unit (PMU) 23
4.2 Software Power Management Mechanism 27
4.2.1 Profiler 30
4.2.2 Policy Manager 32
Chapter 5 EVALUATIONS 35
5.1 Creator PXA270 Development Platform 35
5.1.1 Hardware Introduction 35
5.1.2 Evaluation Environment Setup 40
5.2 Measurement for MAR-CSE 40
5.3 Measurement for Evaluation 44
5.4 Summary 46
Chapter 6 CONCLUSION 48
References 49
Appendix A The Circuit Modification of Creator PXA270 Platform 52
Appendix B The Installation Guide of EA-DVFS Algorithm 53
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